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England Business Guide


Geography


Location:
Western Europe, islands - including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland - between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea; northwest of France


Geographic coordinates:
54 00 N, 2 00 W


Map references:
Europe


Area:
total:243,610 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 80
land:241,930 sq km
water:1,680 sq km
note:includes Rockall and Shetland Islands


Area - comparative:
Area comparison map: '>


Land boundaries:
total:360 km
border countries:Ireland 360 km


Coastline:
12,429 km


Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
exclusive fishing zone:200 nm
continental shelf:as defined in continental shelf orders or in accordance with agreed upon boundaries


Climate:
temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast


Terrain:
mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeast


    Elevation extremes:
lowest point:The Fens -4 m
highest point:Ben Nevis 1,343 m


Natural resources:
coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, lead, zinc, gold, tin, limestone, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, potash, silica sand, slate, arable land


Land use:
arable land:24.88%
permanent crops:0.18%
other:74.93% (2011)


Irrigated land:
2,280 sq km (2005)


Total renewable water resources:
147 cu km (2011)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
147 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
winter windstorms; floods


Environment - current issues:
continues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (has met Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5% reduction from 1990 levels and intends to meet the legally binding target and move toward a domestic goal of a 20% cut in emissions by 2010); by 2005 the government reduced the amount of industrial and commercial waste disposed of in landfill sites to 85% of 1998 levels and recycled or composted at least 25% of household waste, increasing to 33% by 2015


Environment - international agreements:
party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements


Geography - note:
lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and linked by tunnel under the English Channel; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters



People and Society


Nationality:
noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)
adjective:British


Ethnic groups:
white 87.2%, black/African/Caribbean/black British 3%, Asian/Asian British: Indian 2.3%, Asian/Asian British: Pakistani 1.9%, mixed 2%, other 3.7% (2011 est.)


Languages:
English


Religions:
Christian (includes Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 59.5%, Muslim 4.4%, Hindu 1.3%, other 2%, none 25.7%, unspecified 7.2% (2011 est.)


Population:
63,742,977 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 23


Age structure:
0-14 years:17.3% (male 5,660,891/female 5,380,448)
15-24 years:12.6% (male 4,116,859/female 3,945,146)
25-54 years:41% (male 13,299,731/female 12,843,937)
55-64 years:11.5% (male 3,621,110/female 3,702,717)
65 years and over:17.3% (male 4,990,024/female 6,182,114) (2014 est.)


Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:54.8 %
youth dependency ratio:27.2 %
elderly dependency ratio:27.6 %
potential support ratio:3.6 (2014 est.)


Median age:
total:40.4 years
male:39.2 years
female:41.6 years (2014 est.)


Population growth rate:
0.54% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 152


Birth rate:
12.22 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 160


Death rate:
9.34 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 59


Net migration rate:
2.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 38


Urbanization:
urban population:79.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:0.76% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)


Major urban areas - population:
LONDON (capital) 9.005 million; Birmingham 2.272 million; Manchester 2.213 million; West Yorkshire 1.625 million; Glasgow 1.137 million; Newcastle upon Tyne 874,000 (2011)


Sex ratio:
at birth:1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.8 male(s)/female
total population:0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)


Mother's mean age at first birth:
27.8


Maternal mortality rate:
12 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)


Infant mortality rate:
total:4.44 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 189
male:4.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female:4 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)


    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:80.42 yearscountry comparison to the world: 29
male:78.26 years
female:82.69 years (2014 est.)


Total fertility rate:
1.9 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 140


Contraceptive prevalence rate:
84%


Health expenditures:
9.3% of GDP (2011)


Physicians density:
2.77 physicians/1,000 population (2011)


Hospital bed density:
3 beds/1,000 population (2010)


Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)


Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 114


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
85,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 48


HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 73


Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
26.9% (2008)country comparison to the world: 43


Education expenditures:
6.2% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 36

Literacy:
definition:age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population:99%
male:99%
female:99% (2003 est.)


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:16 years
male:16 years
female:17 years (2011)


Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:21%country comparison to the world: 55
male:23.8%
female:17.9% (2012)


Government


Country name:
conventional long form: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; note - Great Britain includes England, Scotland, and Wales
conventional short form:United Kingdom
abbreviation:UK


Government type:
constitutional monarchy and Commonwealth realm


Capital:
name:London
geographic coordinates:51 30 N, 0 05 W
time difference:UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note:applies to the United Kingdom proper, not to its overseas dependencies or territories


Administrative divisions:
Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands


Independence:
12 April 1927 (Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act establishes current name of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland); notable earlier dates: 927 (minor English kingdoms united); 3 March 1284 (enactment of the Statute of Rhuddlan uniting England and Wales); 1536 (Act of Union formally incorporates England and Wales); 1 May 1707 (Acts of Union formally unite England and Scotland as Great Britain); 1 January 1801 (Acts of Union formally unite Great Britain and Ireland as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland); 6 December 1921 (Anglo-Irish Treaty formalizes partition of Ireland; six counties remain part of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland)


National holiday:
the UK does not celebrate one particular national holiday


Constitution:
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice; note - recent additions include the Human Rights Act of 1998, the Constitutional Reform and Governance Act 2010, the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011, and the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (2011)


Legal system:
common law system; has nonbinding judicial review of Acts of Parliament under the Human Rights Act of 1998


International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal


Executive branch:
chief of state:Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 November 1948)
head of government:Prime Minister David CAMERON (since 11 May 2010)
cabinet:Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections:the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister


Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of House of Lords; note - membership is not fixed (780 seats; consisting of approximately 667 life peers, 88 hereditary peers, and 25 clergy - as of 13 January 2014) and House of Commons (650 seats since 2010 elections; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms unless the House is dissolved earlier)
elections:House of Lords - no elections (note - in 1999, as provided by the House of Lords Act, elections were held in the House of Lords to determine the 92 hereditary peers who would remain there; elections are held only as vacancies in the hereditary peerage arise); House of Commons - last held on 6 May 2010 (next to be held by June 2015)
election results:House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative 36.1%, Labor 29%, Liberal Democrats 23%, other 11.9%; seats by party - Conservative 305, Labor 258, Liberal Democrat 57, other 30
note:in 1998 elections were held for a Northern Ireland Assembly (because of unresolved disputes among existing parties, the transfer of power from London to Northern Ireland came only at the end of 1999 and has been suspended four times, the latest occurring in October 2002 and lasting until 8 May 2007); in 1999, the UK held the first elections for a Scottish Parliament and a Welsh Assembly; the most recent elections for the Northern Ireland Assembly, the Scottish Parliament, and the Welsh Assembly took place in May 2011


Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court (consists of 12 justices including the court president and deputy president)
note - the Supreme Court was established by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 and implemented in October 2009, replacing the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords as the highest court in the United Kingdom
judge selection and term of office:judge candidates selected by an independent committee of several judicial commissions, followed by their recommendations to the prime minister, and appointed by Her Majesty The Queen; justices appointed during period of good behavior
subordinate courts:England and Wales - Court of Appeal (civil and criminal divisions); High Court; Crown Court; County Courts; Magistrates' Courts; Scotland - Court of Sessions; Sherrif Courts; High Court of Justiciary; tribunals; Northern Ireland - Court of Appeal in Northern Ireland; High Court; county courts; magistrates' courts; specialized tribunals


    Political parties and leaders:
Conservative [David CAMERON]
Alliance Party (Northerm Ireland) [David FORD]
Democratic Unionist Party or DUP (Northern Ireland) [Peter ROBINSON]
Labor Party [Ed MILIBAND]
Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems) [Nick CLEGG]
Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Leanne WOOD]
Scottish National Party or SNP [Alex SALMOND]
Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) [Gerry ADAMS]
Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland) [Alasdair MCDONNELL]
Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) [Mike NESBITT]
United Kingdom Independent Party or UKIP [Nigel FARAGE]


Political pressure groups and leaders:
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament


International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, C, CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EITI (implementing country), ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Peter John WESTMACOTT (since 17 January 2012)
chancery:3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:[1] (202) 588-6500
FAX:[1] (202) 588-7850
consulate(s) general:Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
consulate(s):Dallas, Orlando (FL)


Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Matthew W. BARZUN (since 15 August 2013)
embassy:24 Grosvenor Square, London, W1K 6AH note - a new embassy is scheduled to open by the end of 2017 in the Nine Elms area of Wandsworth
mailing address:PSC 801, Box 40, FPO AE 09498-4040
telephone:[44] (0) 20 7499-9000
FAX:[44] (0) 20 7629-9124
consulate(s) general:Belfast, Edinburgh


Flag description:
blue field with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland), which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); properly known as the Union Flag, but commonly called the Union Jack; the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including other Commonwealth countries and their constituent states or provinces, and British overseas territories


National symbol(s):
lion (Britain in general); lion, Tudor rose (England); lion, unicorn, thistle (Scotland); dragon, daffodil, leek (Wales); harp, flax (Northern Ireland)


National anthem:
name:'God Save the Queen'

lyrics/music:unknown
note:in use since 1745; by tradition, the song serves as both the national and royal anthem of the United Kingdom; it is known as either 'God Save the Queen' or 'God Save the King,' depending on the gender of the reigning monarch; it also serves as the royal anthem of many Commonwealth nations


Economy


Economy - overview:
The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is the third largest economy in Europe after Germany and France. Over the past two decades, the government has greatly reduced public ownership. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 2% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil resources, but its oil and natural gas reserves are declining and the UK became a net importer of energy in 2005. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, are key drivers of British GDP growth. Manufacturing, meanwhile, has declined in importance but still accounts for about 10% of economic output. After emerging from recession in 1992, Britain's economy enjoyed the longest period of expansion on record during which time growth outpaced most of Western Europe. In 2008, however, the global financial crisis hit the economy particularly hard, due to the importance of its financial sector. Falling home prices, high consumer debt, and the global economic slowdown compounded Britain's economic problems, pushing the economy into recession in the latter half of 2008 and prompting the then BROWN (Labour) government to implement a number of measures to stimulate the economy and stabilize the financial markets; these included nationalizing parts of the banking system, temporarily cutting taxes, suspending public sector borrowing rules, and moving forward public spending on capital projects. Facing burgeoning public deficits and debt levels, in 2010 the CAMERON-led coalition government (between Conservatives and Liberal Democrats) initiated a five-year austerity program, which aimed to lower London's budget deficit from about 11% of GDP in 2010 to nearly 1% by 2015. In November 2011, Chancellor of the Exchequer George OSBORNE announced additional austerity measures through 2017 largely due to the euro-zone debt crisis. The CAMERON government raised the value added tax from 17.5% to 20% in 2011. It has pledged to reduce the corporation tax rate to 21% by 2014. The Bank of England (BoE) implemented an asset purchase program of £375 billion (approximately $605 billion) as of December 2013. During times of economic crisis, the BoE coordinates interest rate moves with the European Central Bank, but Britain remains outside the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). In 2012, weak consumer spending and subdued business investment weighed on the economy, however, in 2013 GDP grew 1.4%, accelerating unexpectedly in the second half of the year because of greater consumer spending and a recovering housing market. The budget deficit is falling but remains high at nearly 7% and public debt has continued to increase.


GDP (purchasing power parity):
$2.387 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
$2.343 trillion (2012 est.)
$2.341 trillion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.49 trillion (2013 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:
1.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
0.1% (2012 est.)
0.9% (2011 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):
$37,300 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
$37,100 (2012 est.)
$37,300 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


Gross national saving:
10.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
11% of GDP (2012 est.)
13.7% of GDP (2011 est.)


GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:66.5%
government consumption:21.4%
investment in fixed capital:13.8%
investment in inventories:0.4%
exports of goods and services:31.1%
imports of goods and services:-33.2%
(2013 est.)


GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture:0.7%
industry:20.5%
services:78.9% (2013 est.)


Agriculture - products:
cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish


Industries:
machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, other consumer goods


Industrial production growth rate:
-0.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169

Labor force:
30.15 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20


Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture:1.4%
industry:18.2%
services:80.4% (2006 est.)


Unemployment rate:
7.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
7.8% (2012 est.)


    Population below poverty line:
16.2% (2011 est.)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:1.7%
highest 10%:31.1% (2012)


Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32.3 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 104
34 (2005)


Budget:
revenues:$1.023 trillion
expenditures:$1.112 trillion (2013 est.)


Taxes and other revenues:
41.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138


Public debt:
91.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
88.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:data cover general government debt, and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions


Fiscal year:
6 April - 5 April


Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
2.7% (2012 est.)


Central bank discount rate:
0.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
0.5% (2012 est.)


Commercial bank prime lending rate:
4.4% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
4.22% (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of narrow money:
$111.6 billion (28 February 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
$101.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of broad money:
$2.881 trillion (28 February 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
$3.401 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of domestic credit:
$3.636 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
$3.756 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Market value of publicly traded shares:
$3.019 trillion


Current account balance:
-$93.6 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
-$93.6 billion (2012 est.)


Exports:
$813.2 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$801.7 billion (2012 est.)


Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco


Exports - partners:
Germany 11.3%, US 10.5%, Netherlands 8.8%, France 7.4%, Ireland 6.2%, Belgium 5.1% (2012)


Imports:
$782.5 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$777.6 billion (2012 est.)


Imports - commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs


Imports - partners:
Germany 12.6%, China 8%, Netherlands 7.5%, US 6.7%, France 5.4%, Belgium 4.4%, Norway 4% (2012)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$87.48 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
$105.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Debt - external:
$9.577 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
$9.457 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$1.557 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
$1.321 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.884 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
$1.81 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Exchange rates:
British pounds (GBP) per US dollar -
0.6391 (2013 est.)
0.6307 (2012 est.)
0.6472 (2010 est.)
0.6175 (2009)
0.5302 (2008)


Energy


Electricity - production:
365.7 billion kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12


Electricity - consumption:
323.3 billion kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12


Electricity - exports:
3.103 billion kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34


Electricity - imports:
17.53 billion kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10


Electricity - installed generating capacity:
89.24 million kW (31 December 2012 )
country comparison to the world: 13


Electricity - from fossil fuels:
76% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99


Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
11.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15


Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
4.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126


Electricity - from other renewable sources:
8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31


Crude oil - production:
771,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26


Crude oil - exports:
637,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20


Crude oil - imports:
1.053 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12


    Crude oil - proved reserves:
3.122 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30


Refined petroleum products - production:
1.343 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16


Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1.217 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19


Refined petroleum products - exports:
526,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13


Refined petroleum products - imports:
566,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11


Natural gas - production:
38.48 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25


Natural gas - consumption:
51.63 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15


Natural gas - exports:
8.949 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27


Natural gas - imports:
48.26 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8


Natural gas - proved reserves:
244 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44


Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
178.5 million Mt (2013 est.)



Communications


Telephones - main lines in use:
33.01 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 9


Telephones - mobile cellular:
82.109 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 18


Telephone system:
general assessment:technologically advanced domestic and international system
domestic:equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems
international:country code - 44; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers (2011)



    Broadcast media:
public service broadcaster, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world; BBC operates multiple TV networks with regional and local TV service; a mixed system of public and commercial TV broadcasters along with satellite and cable systems provide access to hundreds of TV stations throughout the world; BBC operates multiple national, regional, and local radio networks with multiple transmission sites; a large number of commercial radio stations as well as satellite radio services are available (2008)


Internet country code:
.uk


Internet hosts:
8.107 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 15


Internet users:
51.444 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 7



Transportation


Airports
460 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 18


Airports - with paved runways
total:271
over 3,047 m:7
2,438 to 3,047 m:29
1,524 to 2,437 m:89
914 to 1,523 m:80
under 914 m:66 (2013)


Airports - with unpaved runways
total:189
1,524 to 2,437 m:3
914 to 1,523 m:26
under 914 m:
160 (2013)


Heliports
9 (2013)


Pipelines
condensate 502 km; condensate/gas 9 km; gas 28,603 km; liquid petroleum gas 59 km; oil 5,256 km; oil/gas/water 175 km; refined products 4,919 km; water 255 km (2013)


Railways
total:16,454 kmcountry comparison to the world: 17
broad gauge:303 km 1.600-m gauge (in Northern Ireland)
standard gauge:16,151 km 1.435-m gauge (5,248 km electrified) (2008)


Roadways
total:394,428 kmcountry comparison to the world: 16
paved:394,428 km (includes 3,519 km of expressways) (2009)


    Waterways
3,200 km (620 km used for commerce) (2009)
country comparison to the world: 32


Merchant marine
total:504country comparison to the world: 22
by type:bulk carrier 33, cargo 76, carrier 4, chemical tanker 58, container 178, liquefied gas 6, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 66, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 31, vehicle carrier 25
foreign-owned:271 (Australia 1, Bermuda 6, China 7, Denmark 43, France 39, Germany 59, Hong Kong 12, Ireland 1, Italy 3, Japan 5, Netherlands 1, Norway 32, Sweden 28, Taiwan 11, Tanzania 1, UAE 8, US 14)
registered in other countries:308 (Algeria 15, Antigua and Barbuda 1, Argentina 2, Australia 5, Bahamas 18, Barbados 6, Belgium 2, Belize 4, Bermuda 14, Bolivia 1, Brunei 2, Cabo Verde 1, Cambodia 1, Cayman Islands 2, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 2, Cyprus 7, Georgia 5, Gibraltar 6, Greece 6, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 33, Indonesia 2, Italy 2, Liberia 22, Liberia 32, Luxembourg 5, Malta 21, Marshall Islands 12, Marshall Islands 3, Moldova 3, Nigeria 2, NZ 1, Panama 37, Panama 5, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6, Sierra Leone 1, Singapore 6, Thailand 6, Tonga 1, US 4, unknown 1) (2010)



Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Dover, Felixstowe, Immingham, Liverpool, London, Southampton, Teesport (England); Forth Ports (Scotland); Milford Haven (Wales)
oil terminals:Fawley Marine terminal, Liverpool Bay terminal (England); Braefoot Bay terminal, Finnart oil terminal, Hound Point terminal (Scotland)
container port(s) (TEUs):Felixstowe (3,248,592), London (1,932,000), Southampton (1,324,581)


Military


Military branches
Army, Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Royal Air Force (2013)


Military service age and obligation
16-33 years of age (officers 17-28) for voluntary military service (with parental consent under 18); no conscription; women serve in military services, but are excluded from ground combat positions and some naval postings; as of October 2009, women comprised 12.1% of officers and 9% of enlisted personnel in the regular forces; must be citizen of the UK, Commonwealth, or Republic of Ireland; reservists serve a minimum of 3 years, to age 45 or 55; 17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service by Nepalese citizens in the Brigade of Gurkhas; 16-34 years of age for voluntary military service by Papua New Guinean citizens (2012)


Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:14,856,917
females age 16-49:14,307,316 (2010 est.)


    Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:12,255,452
females age 16-49:11,779,679 (2010 est.)


Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male:383,989
female:365,491 (2010 est.)


Military expenditures
2.49% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 28
2.48% of GDP (2011)
2.49% of GDP (2010)


Transnational Issues


Disputes - international
in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any 'shared sovereignty' arrangement between the UK and Spain; the Government of Gibraltar insisted on equal participation in talks between the two countries; Spain disapproved of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory); in 2001, the former inhabitants of the archipelago, evicted 1967 - 1973, were granted U.K. citizenship and the right of return, followed by Orders in Council in 2004 that banned rehabitation, a High Court ruling reversed the ban, a Court of Appeal refusal to hear the case, and a Law Lords' decision in 2008 denied the right of return; in addition, the United Kingdom created the world's largest marine protection area around the Chagos islands prohibiting the extraction of any natural resources therein; UK rejects sovereignty talks requested by Argentina, which still claims the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; Iceland, the UK, and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm


    Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin):11,249 (Somalia); 10,302 (Zimbabwe); 11,368 (Iran); 10,010 (Eritrea); 9,166 (Afghanistan) (2013)
stateless persons:205 (2012)



Illicit drugs
producer of limited amounts of synthetic drugs and synthetic precursor chemicals; major consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and synthetic drugs; money-laundering center

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book



Doing Business in United Kingdom 2017


           
 

 
United Kingdom

  Ease of Doing Business Rank
Overall DTF
7
82.74
 
 
Starting a Business (rank)
16
 
 
Protecting Minority Investors (rank)
6
 
  DTF
94.58
 
  DTF
78.33
 
  Procedures - Men (number)
4.0
 
  Strength of minority investor protection index (0-10)
7.8
 
  Time - Men (number)
4.5
 
  Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-10)
8.3
 
  Cost - Men (days)
0.1
 
  Extent of disclosure index (0-10)
10.0
 
  Procedures - Women (days)
4.0
 
  Extent of director liability index (0-10)
7.0
 
  Time - Women (% of income per capita)
4.5
 
  Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)
8.0
 
  Cost - Women (% of income per capita)
0.1
 
  Extent of shareholder governance index (0-10)
7.3
 
  Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)
0.0
 
  Extent of shareholder rights index (0-10)
8.0
 
 

 
  Extent of ownership and control index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Dealing with Construction Permits (rank)
17
 
  Extent of corporate transparency index (0-10)
8.0
 
  DTF
80.34
 
 

 
  Procedures (number)
9.0
 
  Paying Taxes (rank)
10
 
  Time (days)
86.0
 
  DTF
90.74
 
  Cost (% of warehouse value)
1.1
 
  Payments (number per year)
8.0
 
  Building Quality Control Index(0-15)
9.0
 
  Time (hours per year)
110.0
 
  Quality of building regulations index (0-2)
2.0
 
  Total tax rate (% of profit)
30.9
 
  Quality control before construction index (0-1)
1.0
 
  Profit tax (% of profit)
18.3
 
  Quality control during construction index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Labor tax and contributions (% of profit)
10.9
 
  Quality control after construction index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Other taxes (% of profit)
1.6
 
  Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)
0.0
 
  Postfiling index (0-100)
87.4
 
  Professional certifications index (0-4)
0.0
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
  Trading Across Borders (rank)
28
 
  Getting Electricity (rank)
17
 
  DTF
93.76
 
  DTF
89.12
 
  Time to export: Border compliance (hours)
24
 
  Procedures (number)
4.0
 
  Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)
280
 
  Time (days)
79.0
 
  Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)
4
 
  Cost (% of income per capita)
25.8
 
  Cost to export: Documentary compliance (hours) (USD)
25
 
  Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)
8.0
 
  Time to import: Border compliance (hours)
3
 
  Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)
3.0
 
  Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)
0
 
  Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)
2
 
  Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)
1.0
 
  Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)
0
 
  Regulatory monitoring (0-1)
1.0
 
   
 
 
  Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Enforcing Contracts (rank)
31
 
  Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)
1.0
 
  DTF
69.36
 
  Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)
15.5
 
  Time (days)
437.0
 
   
 
 
  Cost (% of claim)
43.9
 
  Registering Property (rank)
47
 
  Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)
15.0
 
  DTF
74.11
 
   
 
 
  Procedures (number)
6.0
 
  Resolving Insolvency (rank)
13
 
  Time (days)
21.5
 
  DTF
82.04
 
  Cost (% of property value)
4.8
 
  Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)
88.6
 
  Quality of the land administration index (0-30)
24.0
 
  Time (years)
1.0
 
  Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
8.0
 
  Cost (% of estate)
6.0
 
  Transparency of information index (0-6)
5.0
 
  Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern)
1
 
  Geographic coverage index (0-8)
4.0
 
  Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)
11.0
 
  Land dispute resolution index (0-8)
7.0
 
  Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Equal access to property rights index (-2-0)
0.0
 
  Management of debtor's assets index (0-6)
5.0
 
 
 
 
  Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)
1.0
 
  Getting Credit (rank)
20
 
  Creditor participation index (0-4)
2.0
 
  DTF
75.00
 
   
 
 
  Strength of legal rights index (0-12)
7.0
 
   
 
 
  Depth of credit information index (0-8)
8.0
 
 
 
 
  Credit registry coverage (% of adults)
0.0
 
   
 
 
  Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
100.0
 
 
 
 
 

 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 



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