Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula

Geographic coordinates:
27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references:

total:1,001,450 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 30
land:995,450 sq km
water:6,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
Area comparison map: '>

Land boundaries:
total:2,612 km
border countries:Gaza Strip 13 km, Israel 208 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,276 km

2,450 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
contiguous zone:24 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

    Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point:Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc

Land use:
arable land:2.87%
permanent crops:0.79%
other:96.34% (2011)

Irrigated land:
34,220 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
57.3 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
57.3 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms

Environment - current issues:
agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to:Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories

People and Society

noun: Egyptian(s)

Ethnic groups:
Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)

Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10% (2012 est.)

86,895,099 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 16

Age structure:
0-14 years:32.1% (male 14,272,494/female 13,639,550)
15-24 years:17.8% (male 7,913,351/female 7,536,925)
25-54 years:38.4% (male 16,942,145/female 16,398,524)
55-64 years:6.7% (male 2,888,193/female 2,973,531)
65 years and over:4.8% (male 1,949,145/female 2,381,241) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:58.3 %
youth dependency ratio:49.1 %
elderly dependency ratio:9.3 %
potential support ratio:10.8 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total:25.1 years
male:24.7 years
female:25.4 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.84% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 64

Birth rate:
23.35 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 68

Death rate:
4.77 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 196

Net migration rate:
-0.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 119

urban population:43.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:2.04% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
CAIRO (capital) 11.169 million; Alexandria 4.494 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth:1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years:1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.82 male(s)/female
total population:1.03 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

Maternal mortality rate:
66 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate:
total:22.41 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 80
male:23.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female:20.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:73.45 yearscountry comparison to the world: 122
male:70.82 years
female:76.2 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.87 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 62

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
60.3% (2008)

Health expenditures:
4.9% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density:
2.83 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density:
1.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 98.8% of population
total: 99.3% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1.2% of population
total: 0.7% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 94.4% of population
total: 95.9% of population
urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 5.6% of population
total: 4.1% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 136

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
6,500 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 120

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
300 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 103

Major infectious diseases:

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
33.1% (2008)country comparison to the world: 17

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
6.8% (2008)country comparison to the world: 77

Education expenditures:
3.8% of GDP (2008)country comparison to the world: 117

definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:73.9%
female:65.8% (2012 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:13 years
male:13 years
female:13 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:24.8%country comparison to the world: 41
female:54.1% (2010)


Country name:
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form:Egypt
local long form:Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form:Misr
former:United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Government type:

geographic coordinates:30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference:UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj

28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically

National holiday:
National Day, 23 July (1952)

several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referenfum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014 (2014)

Legal system:
mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
Chief of state:President Abdel Fattah al-SISI (since 8 June 2014)
head of government:Prime Minister Ibrahim MEHLAB (since 1 March 2014)
cabinet:interim cabinet sworn in 1 March 2014
elections:last presidential election held on 26-28 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2018)
election results:percent of vote - Abdel Fattah al-SISI 96.6%, Hamdeen SABAHI 3.4%

Legislative branch:
Al-Asala [Ehab SHIHA]
Al-Nour [Yunis MAKHYUN]
Al-Wasat Party [Abou Elela MADY]
Al-Watan [Imad Abd al-GHAFUR]
Building and Development Party or BDP [Nasr Abdul-SALAM]
Dustour (Constitution) Party [Hala SHUKRALLAH]
Egyptian Current Party
Egypt of Freedom Party [Amr HAMZAWY]
El Tagamu'u Party [Sayed Abdel AAL]
Freedom and Justice Party [Muhammad Saad al-KATATNI]
Free Egyptians Party [Ahmad SAID]
New Wafd Party [Sayed al-BADADWI]
Reform and Development Party [Muhammad Anwar al-SADAT]
Strong Egypt Party [Abdel Aboul FOTOUH]
The Conference Party [Ambassador Mohamed ORABI]
The Egyptian Social Democratic Party [Mohamed Aboul GHAR]
The Popular Current Party [Hamdeen SABAHI]
The Popular Socialist Alliance Party [Abdel Ghafar SHOUKR]

    Political pressure groups and leaders:

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Mohamed M. TAWFIK (since 7 September 2012)
chancery:3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:[1] (202) 895-5400
FAX:[1] (202) 244-5131
consulate(s) general:Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Marc J. SIEVERS (since 21 January 2014)
embassy:5 Tawfik Diab St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address:Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo
telephone:[20] (2) 2797-3300
FAX:[20] (2) 2797-3200

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)

National symbol(s):
golden eagle

National anthem:
name:'Bilady, Bilady, Bilady' (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)

lyrics/music:Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH
note:adopted 1979; after the signing of the 1979 peace with Israel, Egypt sought to create an anthem less militaristic than its previous one; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem


Economy - overview:
Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK. Cairo from 2004 to 2008 aggressively pursued economic reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate growth. Poor living conditions combined with limited job opportunities for the average Egyptian contribute to public discontent. After unrest erupted in January 2011, the Egyptian Government backtracked on economic reforms, drastically increasing social spending to address public dissatisfaction, but political uncertainty at the same time caused economic growth to slow significantly, reducing the government's revenues. Tourism, manufacturing, and construction were among the hardest hit sectors of the Egyptian economy, pushing up unemployment levels, and economic growth remains slow amid political uncertainty, government transitions, unrest, and cycles of violence. Cairo since 2011 has drawn down foreign exchange reserves and depended on foreign assistance, particularly from Gulf countries, to finance imports and energy products and prevent further devaluation of the Egyptian pound, fearing higher inflation from a weaker currency.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$551.4 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
$541.5 billion (2012 est.)
$529.7 billion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$262 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
1.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
2.2% (2012 est.)
1.8% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$6,600 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
$6,600 (2012 est.)
$6,600 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
12.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
13.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
13.8% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:78.6%
government consumption:11.8%
investment in fixed capital:14.3%
investment in inventories:0.4%
exports of goods and services:18%
imports of goods and services:-23.2%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
services:48% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats

textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures

Industrial production growth rate:
1.4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138

Labor force:
27.69 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24

Labor force - by occupation:
services:47% (2011 est.)

Unemployment rate:
13.4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
12.7% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
22% (2008 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:4%
highest 10%:26.6% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
30.8 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 116
32.1 (2005)

revenues:$45.57 billion
expenditures:$80.42 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
17.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-13.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213

Public debt:
92.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
88% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:data cover central government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
7.1% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
8.75% (5 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
8.68% (31 December 2010 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
11% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
12% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$47.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
$45.33 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$191.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$183.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$163.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
$192.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$63.49 billion (23 January 2014 est.)

Current account balance:
-$6.035 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
-$9.136 billion (2012 est.)

$24.81 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
$24.93 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food

Exports - partners:
Italy 7.9%, India 6.9%, US 6.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.2%, Turkey 5.3%, Libya 4.9% (2012)

$59.22 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
$60.26 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels

Imports - partners:
China 9.5%, US 7.6%, Germany 6.7%, Russia 5.3%, Ukraine 5.3%, Turkey 5.1%, Italy 5% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$17.03 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
$14.93 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:
$48.76 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
$38.69 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$76.76 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$75.41 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$6.475 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
$6.285 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar -
6.91 (2013 est.)
6.0608 (2012 est.)
5.6219 (2010 est.)
5.545 (2009)
5.4 (2008)


Electricity - production:
138.7 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27

Electricity - consumption:
122.4 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27

Electricity - exports:
1.595 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47

Electricity - imports:
156 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
26.91 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
87.6% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
10.4% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71

Crude oil - production:
720,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

Crude oil - exports:
85,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40

Crude oil - imports:
48,740 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58

    Crude oil - proved reserves:
4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25

Refined petroleum products - production:
602,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
816,300 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Refined petroleum products - exports:
90,050 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46

Refined petroleum products - imports:
164,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35

Natural gas - production:
61.26 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Natural gas - consumption:
46.17 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

Natural gas - exports:
10.51 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186

Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.186 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
201.7 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
8.557 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 23

Telephones - mobile cellular:
96.8 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 16

Telephone system:
general assessment:underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
domestic:largest fixed-line system in the region; as of 2011 there were multiple mobile-cellular networks with a total of roughly 83 million subscribers
international:country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2011)

    Broadcast media:
mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately owned radio stations operational (2008)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
200,430 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 71

Internet users:
20.136 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 21


83 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 65

Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m:15
2,438 to 3,047 m:36
1,524 to 2,437 m:15
under 914 m:6 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways
2,438 to 3,047 m:1
1,524 to 2,437 m:3
914 to 1,523 m:4
under 914 m:
3 (2013)

7 (2013)

condensate 486 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 7,986 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,225 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km; water 65 km (2013)

total:5,083 kmcountry comparison to the world: 34
standard gauge:5,083 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2009)

total:137,430 kmcountry comparison to the world: 37
paved:126,742 km (includes 838 km of expressways)
unpaved:10,688 km (2010)

3,500 km (includes the Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in Nile Delta; the Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) is navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 30

Merchant marine
total:67country comparison to the world: 62
by type:bulk carrier 16, cargo 20, container 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 9
foreign-owned:13 (Denmark 1, France 1, Greece 8, Jordan 2, Lebanon 1)
registered in other countries:42 (Cambodia 4, Georgia 7, Honduras 2, Liberia 3, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 5, Panama 11, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 3, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Mediterranean Sea - Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said; Gulf of Suez - Suez
oil/gas terminal(s):Ain Sukhna terminal, Sidi Kerir terminal
container port(s) (TEUs):Alexandria (1,108,826), Port Said(East) (2,617,043), Port Said(West) (1,138,753)


Military branches
Army, Navy, Egyptian Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya il-Misriya), Egyptian Air Defense Command (2013)

Military service age and obligation
18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation - 18-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; voluntary enlistment possible from age 16 (2012)

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:21,012,199
females age 16-49:20,145,021 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:18,060,543
females age 16-49:17,244,838 (2010 est.)

    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
female:748,647 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures
1.72% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 49
1.86% of GDP (2011)
1.72% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international
Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir

    Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin):70,026 (West Bank and Gaza Strip); 12,927 (Sudan); 6,316 (Somalia); 5,506 (Iraq) (2013); 137,916 (Syria) (2014)
stateless persons:60 (2012)

Illicit drugs
transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations
Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book

Doing Business in Egypt 2020

Egypt Ease of Doing Business Rank: 114 Overall Score: 60.1
Starting a Business (rank) 90
Score 87.8
Procedures - Men (number) 5
Time - Men (number) 12
Cost - Men (days) 20.3
Procedures - Women (days) 6
Time - Women (% of income per capita) 13
Cost - Women (% of income per capita) 20.3
Paid in minimum capital (% of income per capita) 0
Dealing with Construction Permits (rank) 74
Score 71.2
Procedures (number) 20
Time (days) 173
Cost (% of warehouse value) 1.3
Building Quality Control Index(0-15) 14
Quality of building regulations index (0-2) 2
Quality control before construction index (0-1) 1
Quality control during construction index (0-3) 2
Quality control after construction index (0-3) 3
Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2) 2
Professional certifications index (0-4) 4
Getting Electricity (rank) 77
Score 77.9
Procedures (number) 5
Time (days) 53
Cost (% of income per capita) 180.2
Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 5
Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3) 2
Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1) 1
Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1) 1
Regulatory monitoring (0-1) 1
Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1) 0
Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1) 0
System average interruption duration index (SAIDI) 2
System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) 3
Minimum outage time (in minutes) 5
Price of electricity (US cents per kWh) 9.7
Registering Property (rank) 130
Score 55
Procedures (number) 9
Time (days) 76
Cost (% of property value) 1.1
Quality of land administration index (0-30) 9
Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8) 2
Transparency of information index (0-6) 3
Geographic coverage index (0-8) 0
Land dispute resolution index (0-8) 4
Equal access to property rights index (-2-0) 0
Getting credit (rank) 67
Score 65
Strength of legal rights index (0-12) 5
Depth of credit information index (0-8) 8
Getting Credit total score 13
Credit registry coverage (% of adults) 9.5
Credit bureau coverage (% of adults) 31.3
Protecting Minority Investors (rank) 57
Score 64
Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 8
Extent of director liability index (0-10) 3
Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 3
Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) 6
Extent of ownership and control index (0-7) 6
Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) 6
Strength of minority investor protection index (0-50) 32
Paying Taxes (rank) 156
Score 55.1
Payments (number per year) 27
Time (hours per year) 370
Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit) 44.4
Profit tax (% of profit) 14.4
Labor tax and contributions (% of profit) 25.5
Other taxes (% of profit) 4.4
Time to comply with VAT refund (hours) 89
Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks) 35
Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours) 25
Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks) 17
Postfiling index (0-100) 36.3
Trading across borders (rank) 171
Score 42.2
Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours) 88
Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours) 265
Time to export: Border compliance (hours) 48
Time to import: Border compliance (hours) 240
Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD) 100
Cost to import: Documentary compliance 1000
Cost to export: Border compliance (USD) 258
Cost to import: Border compliance (USD) 554
Enforcing contract (rank) 166
Score 40
Time (days) 1010
Filing and service (days) 20
Trial and judgment (days) 720
Enforcement of judgment (days) 270
Cost (% of claim) 26.2
Attorney fees (% of claim) 18
Court fees (% of claim) 1.3
Enforcement fees (% of claim) 6.9
Quality of the judicial processes index (0-18) 4
Court structure and proceedings (0-5) 2
Case management (0-6) 0
Court automation (0-4) 0
Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) 2
Resolving Insolvency (rank) 104
Score 42.2
Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) 0
Time (years) 2.5
Cost (% of estate) 22
Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 23.3
Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16) 9.5
Commencement of proceedings index (0-3) 2.5
Management of debtor's assets index (0-6) 4
Reorganization proceedings index (0-3) 1
Creditor participation index (0-4) 2
Information provided by The World Bank Group