Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates:
64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references:

total:338,145 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 65
land:303,815 sq km
water:34,330 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
total:2,563 km
border countries:Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1,309 km

1,250 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone:24 nm
exclusive fishing zone:12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden
continental shelf:200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point:Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m

    Natural resources:
timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Land use:
arable land:6.65%
permanent crops:0.01%
other:93.34% (2011)

Irrigated land:
685.8 sq km (2010)

Total renewable water resources:
110 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
110 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:

Environment - current issues:
air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

People and Society

noun: Finn(s)

Ethnic groups:
Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)

Finnish (official) 94.2%, Swedish (official) 5.5%, other (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) 0.2% (2012 est.)

Lutheran 78.4%, Orthodox 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.2%, none 19.2% (2010 est.)

5,268,799 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 119

Age structure:
0-14 years:15.8% (male 423,011/female 408,664)
15-24 years:12.1% (male 326,140/female 313,621)
25-54 years:38.1% (male 1,021,798/female 983,423)
55-64 years:14.2% (male 368,355/female 379,957)
65 years and over:19.2% (male 439,014/female 604,816) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:56.8 %
youth dependency ratio:25.8 %
elderly dependency ratio:31 %
potential support ratio:3.2 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total:43.2 years
male:41.2 years
female:45 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.05% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 187

Birth rate:
10.35 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 186

Death rate:
10.51 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 40

Net migration rate:
0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 67

urban population:83.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:0.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
HELSINKI (capital) 1.134 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth:1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.71 male(s)/female
total population:0.96 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
28.4 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
5 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate:
total:3.36 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 211
male:3.65 deaths/1,000 live births
female:3.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:79.69 yearscountry comparison to the world: 41
male:76.24 years
female:83.29 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.73 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 169

Health expenditures:
8.9% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density:
2.9 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density:
5.9 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 137

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2,600 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 135

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 157

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
23% (2008)country comparison to the world: 77

Education expenditures:
6.8% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 27

definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:100%
female:100% (2000 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:17 years
male:16 years
female:18 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:17.7%country comparison to the world: 70
female:17.9% (2012)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form:Finland
local long form:Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form:Suomi/Finland

Government type:

geographic coordinates:60 10 N, 24 56 E
time difference:UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]

6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000; amended several times, last in 2011 (2011)

Legal system:
civil law system based on the Swedish model

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state:President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)
head of government:Prime Minister Jyrki KATAINEN (since 22 June 2011)
cabinet:Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament
elections:president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); the parliament elects a prime minister who is then appointed to office by the president
election results:percent of vote - Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 36.96%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 18.76%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (Kesk) 17.53%, Timo SOINI (TF) 9.4%, Paavo LIPPONEN (SDP) 6.7%, Paavo ARHINMĂ„KI (Vas) 5.48%, Eva BIAUDET (SFP) 2.7%, Sari ESSAYAH (KD) 2.47%; a runoff election between NIINISTO and HAAVISTO was held 5 February 2012 - NIINISTO 62.59%, HAAVISTO 37.41%; Jyrki KATAINEN elected prime minister; election results 118-72
note:government coalition - Kok, SDP, Vihr, SFP, Vas, and KD (2013)

Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)
elections:last held on 17 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)
election results:percent of vote by party - Kok 20.4%, SDP 19.1%, PS 19.1%, Kesk 15.8%, Vas 8.1%, Vihr 7.3%, SFP 4.3%, KD 4%, other 1.9%; seats by party - Kok 44, SDP 42, TF 39, Kesk 35, Vas 14, Vihr 10, SFP 9, KD 6, other 1 (the constituency of Aland)

    Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges including the court president and organized into 3 chambers)
note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction, and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities
judge selection and term of office:Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts:6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights

Political parties and leaders:
Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA]
Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN]
Green League or Vihr [Ville NIINISTO]
Left Alliance or Vas [Paavo ARHINMAKI]
National Coalition Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Jutta URPILAINEN]
Swedish People's Party or SFP [Carl HAGLUND]
The Finns Party or PS [Timo SOINI]

International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Ritva KOUKKU-RONDE (since 1 September 2011)
chancery:3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:[1] (202) 298-5800
FAX:[1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general:Los Angeles (Juha Pekka MARKKANEN), New York (Jukka PIETIKAINEN)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Bruce J. ORECK (since 12 August 2009)
embassy:Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address:APO AE 09723
telephone:[358] (9) 616250
FAX:[358] (9) 6162 5800

Flag description:
white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter

National symbol(s):

National anthem:
name:'Maamme' (Our Land)

lyrics/music:Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS
note:in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland


Economy - overview:
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita output almost as high as that of Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, or Sweden. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years. Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology for mobile phones as well as promotion of startups in the ICT, gaming, cleantech, and biotechnology sectors. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU in recent years and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in 2009, with Finland experiencing one of the deepest contractions in the euro zone. A recovery of exports, domestic trade, and household consumption stimulated economic growth in 2010-11, however, continued recession within the EU dampened the economy in 2012-13. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio, turning previously strong budget surpluses into deficits, but Finland took action to ensure it that it met the EU deficit targets in 2013 and retained its triple-A credit rating. Finland's main challenge will be to stimulate growth while faced with weak export demand in the EU and its own government austerity measures. Longer-term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$195.5 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
$196.8 billion (2012 est.)
$198.4 billion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$259.6 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-0.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
-0.8% (2012 est.)
2.7% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$35,900 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$36,300 (2012 est.)
$36,700 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
17.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
19.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
21.2% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:56.3%
government consumption:24.3%
investment in fixed capital:18.3%
investment in inventories:0.3%
exports of goods and services:38%
imports of goods and services:-37.3%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
services:71.9% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish

metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate:
-4.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188

Labor force:
2.685 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture and forestry:4.4%
finance, insurance, and business services:13.3%
transport and communications:9.9%
public services:28.5% (2011)

Unemployment rate:
8.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
7.8% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:3.6%
highest 10%:24.7% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
26.8 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 131
25.6 (1991)

revenues:$139.4 billion
expenditures:$145.3 billion
note:Central Government Budget (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
53.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92

Public debt:
56.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
53.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
3.2% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
0.75% (31 December 2013)
country comparison to the world: 123
1.5% (31 December 2010)
note:this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
2% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
2.06% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$130.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
$126.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
note:see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:
$183.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
$182.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$267.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
$265.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$158.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance:
-$2 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
-$3.679 billion (2012 est.)

$75.7 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
$76.46 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber

Exports - partners:
Sweden 11.1%, Russia 9.9%, Germany 9.3%, Netherlands 6.3%, US 6.2%, UK 5.1%, China 4.6% (2012)

$70.67 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
$72.13 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains

Imports - partners:
Russia 17.7%, Sweden 14.8%, Germany 13.9%, Netherlands 8.1%, China 4.4% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$10.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
$11.08 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:
$586.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
$478.5 billion (31 December 2011)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$138.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
$134.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$197.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$186.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)


Electricity - production:
70.34 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Electricity - consumption:
84.83 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36

Electricity - exports:
1.645 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46

Electricity - imports:
19.09 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
16.68 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
52.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
16.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
18.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
12.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

Crude oil - production:
13,530 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110

Crude oil - imports:
214,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

    Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130

Refined petroleum products - production:
282,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
204,800 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

Refined petroleum products - exports:
144,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38

Refined petroleum products - imports:
113,800 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48

Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129

Natural gas - consumption:
4.7 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98

Natural gas - imports:
3.661 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
54.06 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
890,000 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 79

Telephones - mobile cellular:
9.32 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 83

Telephone system:
general assessment:modern system with excellent service
domestic:digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needs
international:country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2011)

    Broadcast media:
a mix of publicly operated TV stations and privately owned TV stations; the 2 publicly owned TV stations recently expanded services and the largest private TV station has introduced several special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals have been broadcast digitally since September 2007; analog broadcasts via cable networks were terminated in February 2008; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters (2008)

Internet country code:
.fi; note - Aland Islands assigned .ax

Internet hosts:
4.763 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 22

Internet users:
4.393 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 55


148 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 39

Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m:3
2,438 to 3,047 m:26
1,524 to 2,437 m:10
914 to 1,523 m:21
under 914 m:14 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways
914 to 1,523 m:3
under 914 m:
71 (2013)

gas 1,689 km (2010)

total:5,944 kmcountry comparison to the world: 31
broad gauge:5,944 km 1.524-m gauge (3,067 km electrified) (2013)

total:78,000 kmcountry comparison to the world: 60
paved:50,000 km (includes 700 km of expressways)
unpaved:28,000 km
note:there 78,000 km of highways, 350,000 km of private and forest roads, and 26,000 km of urban roads giving Finland a total road network of 450,000 km (2012)

8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport is used frequently in the summer and is widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finand also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)
country comparison to the world: 18

Merchant marine
total:97country comparison to the world: 51
by type:bulk carrier 2, cargo 25, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, container 3, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 16, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 31, vehicle carrier 3
foreign-owned:5 (Cyprus 1, Estonia 2, Iceland 1, Sweden 1)
registered in other countries:47 (Bahamas 8, Germany 3, Gibraltar 2, Malta 3, Netherlands 13, Panama 2, Sweden 16) (2010)

Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma


Military branches
Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat; includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2013)

Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for male voluntary and compulsory - and female voluntary - national military and nonmilitary service; service obligation 6-12 months; military obligation to age 60 (2012)

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:1,155,368
females age 16-49:1,106,193 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:955,151
females age 16-49:912,983 (2010 est.)

    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
female:31,416 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures
1.47% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 62
1.42% of GDP (2011)
1.47% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international
various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

    Refugees and internally displaced persons
stateless persons:2,017 (2012)

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book

Doing Business in Finland 2020

Finland Ease of Doing Business Rank: 20 Overall Score: 80.2
Starting a Business (rank) 31
Score 93.5
Procedures - Men (number) 3
Time - Men (number) 13
Cost - Men (days) 0.7
Procedures - Women (days) 3
Time - Women (% of income per capita) 13
Cost - Women (% of income per capita) 0.7
Paid in minimum capital (% of income per capita) 5.9
Dealing with Construction Permits (rank) 42
Score 75.9
Procedures (number) 17
Time (days) 65
Cost (% of warehouse value) 0.7
Building Quality Control Index(0-15) 10
Quality of building regulations index (0-2) 2
Quality control before construction index (0-1) 1
Quality control during construction index (0-3) 2
Quality control after construction index (0-3) 3
Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2) 0
Professional certifications index (0-4) 2
Getting Electricity (rank) 24
Score 89
Procedures (number) 5
Time (days) 42
Cost (% of income per capita) 27.5
Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 8
Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3) 3
Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1) 1
Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1) 1
Regulatory monitoring (0-1) 1
Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1) 1
Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1) 1
System average interruption duration index (SAIDI) 0.2
System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) 0.2
Minimum outage time (in minutes) 0
Price of electricity (US cents per kWh) 13.3
Registering Property (rank) 34
Score 79
Procedures (number) 3
Time (days) 61.5
Cost (% of property value) 4
Quality of land administration index (0-30) 26.5
Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8) 8
Transparency of information index (0-6) 3
Geographic coverage index (0-8) 8
Land dispute resolution index (0-8) 7.5
Equal access to property rights index (-2-0) 0
Getting credit (rank) 80
Score 60
Strength of legal rights index (0-12) 6
Depth of credit information index (0-8) 6
Getting Credit total score 12
Credit registry coverage (% of adults) 0
Credit bureau coverage (% of adults) 22
Protecting Minority Investors (rank) 61
Score 62
Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 6
Extent of director liability index (0-10) 4
Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 8
Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) 5
Extent of ownership and control index (0-7) 2
Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) 6
Strength of minority investor protection index (0-50) 31
Paying Taxes (rank) 10
Score 90.9
Payments (number per year) 8
Time (hours per year) 90
Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit) 36.6
Profit tax (% of profit) 12.1
Labor tax and contributions (% of profit) 23
Other taxes (% of profit) 1.5
Time to comply with VAT refund (hours) 5
Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks) 6
Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours) 8
Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks) 0
Postfiling index (0-100) 93.1
Trading across borders (rank) 37
Score 92.4
Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours) 2
Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours) 1
Time to export: Border compliance (hours) 36
Time to import: Border compliance (hours) 2
Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD) 70
Cost to import: Documentary compliance 0
Cost to export: Border compliance (USD) 213
Cost to import: Border compliance (USD) 0
Enforcing contract (rank) 45
Score 66.4
Time (days) 485
Filing and service (days) 14
Trial and judgment (days) 365
Enforcement of judgment (days) 106
Cost (% of claim) 16.2
Attorney fees (% of claim) 12.5
Court fees (% of claim) 3.5
Enforcement fees (% of claim) 0.2
Quality of the judicial processes index (0-18) 8.5
Court structure and proceedings (0-5) 1.5
Case management (0-6) 2
Court automation (0-4) 2.5
Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) 2.5
Resolving Insolvency (rank) 1
Score 92.7
Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) 1
Time (years) 0.9
Cost (% of estate) 3.5
Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 88
Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16) 14.5
Commencement of proceedings index (0-3) 3
Management of debtor's assets index (0-6) 6
Reorganization proceedings index (0-3) 2.5
Creditor participation index (0-4) 3
Information provided by The World Bank Group