211 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
211 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
211 cu km (2011)

Environment - current issues:
some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff

Environment - international agreements:
party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements

    Geography - note:
largest West European nation

People and Society

noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)

Ethnic groups:
Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities

French (official) 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)

Roman Catholic 83%-88%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 5%-10%, unaffiliated 4%

66,259,012country comparison to the world: 22
note:the above figure is for metropolitan France and five overseas regions; the metropolitan France population is 62,814,233 (July 2014 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years:18.7% (male 6,337,877/female 6,053,185)
15-24 years:11.9% (male 4,018,044/female 3,837,191)
25-54 years:38.6% (male 12,851,278/female 12,719,073)
55-64 years:12.5% (male 4,012,614/female 4,290,624)
65 years and over:17.9% (male 5,197,519/female 6,941,607) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:57.4 %
youth dependency ratio:28.6 %
elderly dependency ratio:28.8 %
potential support ratio:3.5 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total:40.9 years
male:39.3 years
female:42.4 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.45% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 158

Birth rate:
12.49 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 159

Death rate:
9.06 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 65

Net migration rate:
1.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 59

urban population:85.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
PARIS (capital) 10.62 million; Marseille-Aix-en-Provence 14,890,100; Lyon 1.488 million; Lille 1.042 million; Nice-Cannes 991,000; Toulouse 933,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth:1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.74 male(s)/female
total population:0.96 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
28.1 (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
8 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

    Infant mortality rate:
total:3.31 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 214
male:3.63 deaths/1,000 live births
female:2.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population:81.66 yearscountry comparison to the world: 15
male:78.55 years
female:84.91 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.08 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 112

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

Health expenditures:
11.6% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density:
3.38 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density:
6.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 78

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
150,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 34

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,700 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 62

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
18.2% (2008)country comparison to the world: 108

Education expenditures:
5.9% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 43

definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:99%
female:99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:16 years
male:16 years
female:16 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:23.8%country comparison to the world: 43
female:23.7% (2012)


Country name:
conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form:France
local long form:Republique francaise
local short form:France

Government type:

geographic coordinates:48 52 N, 2 20 E
time difference:UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note:applies to metropolitan France only, not to its overseas departments, collectivities, or territories

Administrative divisions:
27 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie (Lower Normandy), Bourgogne (Burgundy), Bretagne (Brittany), Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse (Corsica), Franche-Comte, Guadeloupe, Guyane (French Guiana), Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy), Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Martinique, Mayotte, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Reunion, Rhone-Alpes

Dependent areas:
Clipperton Island, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, New Caledonia, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna

no official date of independence: 486 (Frankish tribes unified under Merovingian kingship); 10 August 843 (Western Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 14 July 1789 (French monarchy overthrown); 22 September 1792 (First French Republic founded); 4 October 1958 (Fifth French Republic established)

National holiday:
Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790); note - although often incorrectly referred to as Bastille Day, the celebration actually commemorates the holiday held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille (on 14 July 1789) and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy; other names for the holiday are Fete Nationale (National Holiday) and quatorze juillet (14th of July)

4 October 1958 (French Constitution) (2013)

Legal system:
civil law; review of administrative but not legislative acts

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state:President Francois HOLLANDE (since 15 May 2012)
head of government:Prime Minister Manuel VALLS (since 1 April 2014)
cabinet:Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister
elections:president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 April and 6 May 2012 (next to be held in the spring of 2017); prime minister appointed by the president
election results:Francois HOLLANDE elected; first round: percent of vote - Francois HOLLANDE 28.6%, Nicolas SARKOZY 27.2%, Marine LE PEN 17.9%, Jean-Luc MELENCHON 11.1%, Francois BAYROU, 9.1%, others 6.1%; second round: HOLLANDE 51.6%, SARKOZY 48.4%

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (348 seats; 328 for metropolitan France and overseas departments, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1 for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve six-year terms; one third elected every three years); and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats; 555 for metropolitan France, 15 for overseas departments, 7 for overseas dependencies; members elected by popular vote under a single-member majority system to serve five-year terms)
elections:Senate - last held on 25 September 2011 (next to be held in September 2014); National Assembly - last held on 10 and 17 June 2012 (next to be held in June 2017)
election results:Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PS/Greens 140, UMP 132, UDF 31, PCF/MRC 21, PRG 17, other 7; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - PS 48.5%, UMP 33.6%, miscellaneous left wing parties 3.8%, Greens 3.0%, miscellaneous right wing parties 2.6%, NC 2.1%, PRG 2.1%, FDG 1.7%, other 2.6%; seats by party - PS 280, UMP 194, miscellaneous left wing parties 22, Greens 17, miscellaneous right wing parties 15, NC 12, PRG 12, FDG 10, other 15

Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of the court president, 6 divisional presiding judges, 120 trial judges, and 70 deputy judges organized into 6 divisions - 3 civil, 1 commercial, 1 labor, and 1 criminal); Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office:Court of Cassation judges appointed by the president of the republic from nominations from the High Council of the Judiciary, presided by the Court of Cassation and 15 appointed members; judge term of appointment NA; Constitutional Council members appointed - 3 by the president of the republic and 3 each by the National Assembly and Senate presidents; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms with one third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts:appellate courts or Cour d'Appel; regional courts or Tribunal de Grande Instance; first instance courts or Tribunal' d'instance

    Political parties and leaders:
Europe Ecology - The Greens or EELV [Emmanuelle COSSE]
French Communist Party or PCF [Pierre LAURENT]
Left Front Coalition or FDG [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]
Left Party or PG [Jean-Luc MELENCHON and Martine BILLARD]
Left Radical Party or PRG [Jean-Michel BAYLET] (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG)
Movement for France or MPF [Philippe DE VILLIERS]
National Front or FN [Marine LE PEN]
New Anticapitalist Party or NPA [collective leadership; main spokesperson Christine POUPIN]
New Center or NC [Herve MORIN]
Radical Party [Jean-Louis BORLOO]
Rally for France or RPF [Charles PASQUA]
Republican and Citizen Movement or MRC [Jean-Luc LAURENT]
Socialist Party or PS [Haerlem DESIR]
United Republic or RS [Dominique DE VILLEPIN]
Union for a Popular Movement or UMP [Jean-Francois COPE]
Union des Democrates et Independants or UDI [Jean-Louis BORLOO] and Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU] (previously Union for French Democracy or UDF); together known as UDI-Modem
Worker's Struggle (Lutte Ouvriere) or LO [collective leadership; spokespersons Nathalie ARTHAUD and Arlette LAQUILLER]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail (French Democratic Confederation of Labor) or CFDT, left-leaning labor union with approximately 875,000 members [Laurent BERGER, Secretary General]

International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, FZ, G-20, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Francois M. DELATTRE (since 18 February 2011)
chancery:4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:[1] (202) 944-6000
FAX:[1] (202) 944-6166
consulate(s) general:Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mark A. TAPLIN; note - also accredited to Monaco
embassy:2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
mailing address:PSC 116, APO AE 09777
telephone:[33] (1) 43-12-22-22
FAX:[33] (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general:Marseille, Strasbourg

Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the 'Le drapeau tricolore' (French Tricolor), the origin of the flag dates to 1790 and the French Revolution when the 'ancient French color' of white was combined with the blue and red colors of the Parisian militia; the official flag for all French dependent areas

National symbol(s):
Gallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne

National anthem:
name:'La Marseillaise' (The Song of Marseille)

lyrics/music:Claude-Joseph ROUGET de Lisle
note:adopted 1795, restored 1870; originally known as 'Chant de Guerre pour l'Armee du Rhin' (War Song for the Army of the Rhine), the National Guard of Marseille made the song famous by singing it while marching into Paris in 1792 during the French Revolutionary Wars


Economy - overview:
The French economy is diversified across all sectors. The government has partially or fully privatized many large companies, including Air France, France Telecom, Renault, and Thales. However, the government maintains a strong presence in some sectors, particularly power, public transport, and defense industries. With at least 82 million foreign tourists per year, France is the most visited country in the world and maintains the third largest income in the world from tourism. France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that mitigate economic inequality. France's real GDP stagnated in 2012 and 2013. The unemployment rate (including overseas territories) increased from 7.8% in 2008 to 10.2% in 2013. Youth unemployment in metropolitan France decreased from a high of 25.4% in the fourth quarter of 2012 to 22.8% in the fourth quarter of 2013. Lower-than-expected growth and high spending have strained France's public finances. The budget deficit rose sharply from 3.3% of GDP in 2008 to 7.5% of GDP in 2009 before improving to 4.1% of GDP in 2013, while France's public debt rose from 68% of GDP to nearly 94% over the same period. In accordance with its EU obligations, France is targeting a deficit of 3.6% of GDP in 2014 and 2.8% in 2015. The administration of President Francois HOLLANDE has implemented greater state support for employment, the separation of banks' traditional deposit taking and lending activities from more speculative businesses, increasing the top corporate and personal tax rates, including a temporary 75% tax on wages over one million euros, and hiring an additional 60,000 teachers during his five-year term. In January 2014 HOLLANDE proposed a “Responsibility Pact” aimed primarily at lowering labor costs in return for businesses’ commitment to create jobs. Despite stagnant growth and fiscal challenges, France's borrowing costs have declined in recent years because investors remain attracted to the liquidity of France’s bonds.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$2.276 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
$2.269 trillion (2012 est.)
$2.268 trillion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.739 trillion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
0.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
0% (2012 est.)
2% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$35,700 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
$35,800 (2012 est.)
$36,000 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
18.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
17.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
19% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:57.6%
government consumption:25.1%
investment in fixed capital:18.7%
investment in inventories:0.1%
exports of goods and services:27.3%
imports of goods and services:-28.8%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
services:79.4% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish

machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
-0.4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170

Labor force:
29.94 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21

Labor force - by occupation:
services:76.4% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate:
10.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
10.2% (2012 est.)
note:includes overseas territories

Population below poverty line:
7.9% (2011)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:3.5%
highest 10%:25.4% (2011)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
30.6 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 117
27.9 (1996)

revenues:$1.41 trillion
expenditures:$1.522 trillion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
51.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150

Public debt:
93.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
90.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
2% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
0.75% (31 December 2013)
country comparison to the world: 114
1.75% (31 December 2010)
note:this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
3.1% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
3.44% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$810.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
$738.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
note:see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:
$2.299 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
$2.273 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$3.687 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
$3.631 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.762 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance:
-$58.97 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
-$45.22 billion (2012 est.)

$578.6 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
$567.1 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages

Exports - partners:
Germany 16.7%, Belgium 7.5%, Italy 7.5%, Spain 6.9%, UK 6.9%, US 5.6%, Netherlands 4.3% (2012)

$659.8 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
$653.4 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals

Imports - partners:
Germany 19.5%, Belgium 11.3%, Italy 7.6%, Netherlands 7.4%, Spain 6.6%, UK 5.1%, China 4.9% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$198.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
$188.4 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$5.371 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$5.004 trillion (31 December 2011)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$1.103 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
$1.095 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.489 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$1.497 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)


Electricity - production:
561.2 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

Electricity - consumption:
462.9 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Electricity - exports:
73.4 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

Electricity - imports:
29 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
124.3 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
22.1% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
50.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
14.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
6.9% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37

Crude oil - production:
72,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115

Crude oil - imports:
1.298 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

    Crude oil - proved reserves:
85.18 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71

Refined petroleum products - production:
1.55 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1.792 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Refined petroleum products - exports:
464,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15

Refined petroleum products - imports:
834,800 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7

Natural gas - production:
508 million cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70

Natural gas - consumption:
47.99 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17

Natural gas - exports:
5.994 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

Natural gas - imports:
47.71 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Natural gas - proved reserves:
10.7 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
374.3 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
39.29 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 7

Telephones - mobile cellular:
62.28 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 21

Telephone system:
general assessment:highly developed
domestic:extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive use of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system
international:country code - 33; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - more than 3 (2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries
overseas departments:country codes: French Guiana - 594; Guadeloupe - 590; Martinique - 596; Mayotte - 262; Reunion - 262 (2011)

    Broadcast media:
a mix of both publicly operated and privately owned TV stations; state-owned France Televisions operates 4 networks, one of which is a network of regional stations, and has part-interest in several thematic cable/satellite channels and international channels; a large number of privately owned regional and local TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable services provide a large number of channels; public broadcaster Radio France operates 7 national networks, a series of regional networks, and operates services for overseas territories and foreign audiences; Radio France Internationale (RFI), under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is a leading international broadcaster; a large number of commercial FM stations, with many of them consolidating into commercial networks (2008)

Internet country code:
metropolitan France - .fr; French Guiana - .gf; Guadeloupe - .gp; Martinique - .mq; Mayotte - .yt; Reunion - .re

Internet hosts:
17.266 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 7

Internet users:
45.262 million; 44.625 million (metropolitan France) (2009)
country comparison to the world: 8


464 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 17

Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m:14
2,438 to 3,047 m:25
1,524 to 2,437 m:97
914 to 1,523 m:83
under 914 m:75 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways
1,524 to 2,437 m:1
914 to 1,523 m:64
under 914 m:
105 (2013)

1 (2013)

gas 15,322 km; oil 2,939 km; refined products 5,084 km (2013)

total:29,640 kmcountry comparison to the world: 9
standard gauge:29,473 km 1.435-m gauge (15,361 km electrified)
narrow gauge:167 km 1.000-m gauge (63 km electrified) (2008)

total:1,028,446 km (metropolitan France; includes 11,416 km of expressways)country comparison to the world: 8
note:there are another 5,100 km of roadways in overseas departments (2010)


Merchant marine
country comparison to the world: 36
by type:bulk carrier 3, cargo 7, chemical tanker 34, container 27, liquefied gas 12, passenger 10, passenger/cargo 41, petroleum tanker 16, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 11
foreign-owned:50 (Belgium 7, Bermuda 5, Denmark 11, French Polynesia 11, Germany 1, New Caledonia 3, Singapore 3, Sweden 4, Switzerland 5)
registered in other countries:151 (Bahamas 15, Belgium 7, Bermuda 1, Canada 1, Cyprus 16, Egypt 1, Hong Kong 4, Indonesia 1, Ireland 2, Italy 2, Luxembourg 15, Malta 8, Marshall Islands 7, Mexico 1, Morocco 3, Netherlands 2, Norway 5, Panama 7, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Singapore 3, South Korea 2, Taiwan 2, UK 39, US 4, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Brest, Calais, Dunkerque, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes,
river port(s):Paris, Rouen (Seine); Strasbourg (Rhine); Bordeaux (Garronne)
container port(s):Le Havre (2,215,262)(2011)
cruise/ferry port(s):Calais, Cherbourg, Le Havre


Military branches
Army (Armee de Terre; includes Marines, Foreign Legion, Army Light Aviation), Navy (Marine Nationale), Air Force (Armee de l'Air (AdlA); includes Air Defense) (2011)

Military service age and obligation
18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; 1-year service obligation; women serve in noncombat posts (2013)

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:14,563,662
females age 16-49:14,238,434 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:12,025,341
females age 16-49:11,721,827 (2010 est.)

    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
female:377,839 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures
1.8% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 47
1.9% of GDP (2013)
1.9% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international
Madagascar claims the French territories of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; France asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); France and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of New Caledonia

    Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin):23,762 (Sri Lanka); 13,513 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 12,795 (Russia); 12,560 (Cambodia); 11,738 (Serbia); 10,867 (Turkey); 8,528 (Vietnam); 7,261 (Laos); 5,101 (Mauritania) (2013)
stateless persons:1,210 (2012)

Illicit drugs

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book

Doing Business in France 2020

France Ease of Doing Business Rank: 32 Overall Score: 76.8
Starting a Business (rank) 37
Score 93.1
Procedures - Men (number) 5
Time - Men (number) 4
Cost - Men (days) 0.7
Procedures - Women (days) 5
Time - Women (% of income per capita) 4
Cost - Women (% of income per capita) 0.7
Paid in minimum capital (% of income per capita) 0
Dealing with Construction Permits (rank) 52
Score 74.3
Procedures (number) 9
Time (days) 213
Cost (% of warehouse value) 3.9
Building Quality Control Index(0-15) 13
Quality of building regulations index (0-2) 2
Quality control before construction index (0-1) 1
Quality control during construction index (0-3) 3
Quality control after construction index (0-3) 2
Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2) 2
Professional certifications index (0-4) 3
Getting Electricity (rank) 17
Score 92
Procedures (number) 4
Time (days) 53
Cost (% of income per capita) 5
Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 8
Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3) 3
Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1) 1
Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1) 1
Regulatory monitoring (0-1) 1
Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1) 1
Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1) 1
System average interruption duration index (SAIDI) 0.4
System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) 0.3
Minimum outage time (in minutes) 3
Price of electricity (US cents per kWh) 13.6
Registering Property (rank) 99
Score 63.3
Procedures (number) 8
Time (days) 42
Cost (% of property value) 7.3
Quality of land administration index (0-30) 24
Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8) 7
Transparency of information index (0-6) 3
Geographic coverage index (0-8) 8
Land dispute resolution index (0-8) 6
Equal access to property rights index (-2-0) 0
Getting credit (rank) 104
Score 50
Strength of legal rights index (0-12) 4
Depth of credit information index (0-8) 6
Getting Credit total score 10
Credit registry coverage (% of adults) 47
Credit bureau coverage (% of adults) 0
Protecting Minority Investors (rank) 45
Score 68
Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 8
Extent of director liability index (0-10) 3
Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 6
Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) 4
Extent of ownership and control index (0-7) 6
Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) 7
Strength of minority investor protection index (0-50) 34
Paying Taxes (rank) 61
Score 79.2
Payments (number per year) 9
Time (hours per year) 139
Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit) 60.7
Profit tax (% of profit) 0.2
Labor tax and contributions (% of profit) 50
Other taxes (% of profit) 10.5
Time to comply with VAT refund (hours) 11
Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks) 6
Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours) 4
Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks) 0
Postfiling index (0-100) 92.4
Trading across borders (rank) 1
Score 100
Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours) 1
Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours) 1
Time to export: Border compliance (hours) 0
Time to import: Border compliance (hours) 0
Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD) 0
Cost to import: Documentary compliance 0
Cost to export: Border compliance (USD) 0
Cost to import: Border compliance (USD) 0
Enforcing contract (rank) 16
Score 73.5
Time (days) 447
Filing and service (days) 22
Trial and judgment (days) 325
Enforcement of judgment (days) 100
Cost (% of claim) 17.4
Attorney fees (% of claim) 10.7
Court fees (% of claim) 2.7
Enforcement fees (% of claim) 4
Quality of the judicial processes index (0-18) 12
Court structure and proceedings (0-5) 4.5
Case management (0-6) 3
Court automation (0-4) 2
Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) 2.5
Resolving Insolvency (rank) 26
Score 74.6
Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) 1
Time (years) 1.9
Cost (% of estate) 9
Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 74.8
Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16) 11
Commencement of proceedings index (0-3) 3
Management of debtor's assets index (0-6) 6
Reorganization proceedings index (0-3) 1
Creditor participation index (0-4) 1
Information provided by The World Bank Group