Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

Geographic coordinates:
51 00 N, 9 00 E

Map references:

total:357,022 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 63
land:348,672 sq km
water:8,350 sq km

Area - comparative:
Area comparison map: '>

Land boundaries:
total:3,694 km
border countries:Austria 801 km, Belgium 133 km, Czech Republic 704 km, Denmark 140 km, France 418 km, Luxembourg 128 km, Netherlands 575 km, Poland 447 km, Switzerland 348 km

2,389 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind

lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m
highest point:Zugspitze 2,963 m

    Natural resources:
coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land

Land use:
arable land:33.25%
permanent crops:0.56%
other:66.19% (2011)

Irrigated land:
5,157 sq km (2006)

Total renewable water resources:
154 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
154 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:

Environment - current issues:
emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive

Environment - international agreements:
party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea

People and Society

noun: German(s)

Ethnic groups:
German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)

German (official)

Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%

80,996,685 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 18

Age structure:
0-14 years:13% (male 5,386,525/female 5,107,336)
15-24 years:10.6% (male 4,367,713/female 4,188,566)
25-54 years:41.7% (male 17,116,346/female 16,664,995)
55-64 years:13.6% (male 5,463,221/female 5,574,166)
65 years and over:20.9% (male 7,468,552/female 9,659,265) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:52.1 %
youth dependency ratio:19.8 %
elderly dependency ratio:32.3 %
potential support ratio:3.1 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total:46.1 years
male:45.1 years
female:47.2 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
-0.18% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 212

Birth rate:
8.42 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 219

Death rate:
11.29 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 31

Net migration rate:
1.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 60

urban population:73.9% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:-0.03% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
BERLIN (capital) 3.462 million; Hamburg 1.796 million; Munich 1.364 million; Cologne 1.006 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth:1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.76 male(s)/female
total population:0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
29.2 (2012 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate:
total:3.46 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 209
male:3.75 deaths/1,000 live births
female:3.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:80.44 yearscountry comparison to the world: 28
male:78.15 years
female:82.86 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.43 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 203

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

Health expenditures:
11.1% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density:
3.69 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density:
8.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 138

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
67,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 56

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 79

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
25.1% (2008)country comparison to the world: 59

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
1.1% (2006)country comparison to the world: 133

Education expenditures:
5.1% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 74

definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:99%
female:99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:16 years
male:16 years
female:16 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:8.1%country comparison to the world: 121
female:7.4% (2012)


Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form:Germany
local long form:Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form:Deutschland
former:German Empire, German Republic, German Reich

Government type:
federal republic

geographic coordinates:52 31 N, 13 24 E
time difference:UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat)

18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)

National holiday:
Unity Day, 3 October (1990)

previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10 to 23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949; amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)

Legal system:
civil law system

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state:President Joachim GAUCK (since 23 March 2012)
head of government:Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)
cabinet:Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor
elections:president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention, including all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held on 19 February 2012 (next to be held by June 2017); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Parliament for a four-year term; Federal Parliament vote for Chancellor last held on 17 December 2013 (next to be held after the September 2017 elections)
election results:Joachim GAUCK elected president; received 991 votes of the Federal Convention against 126 for Beate KLARSFELD and 3 for Olaf ROSE; Angela MERKEL reelected chancellor; vote by Federal Parliament 462 to 150 with four abstentions

Legislative branch:
bicameral legislature consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments sit in the Council; each has three to six votes in proportion to population and is required to vote as a block) and the Federal Parliament or Bundestag (630 seats; members elected by popular vote for a four-year term under a system of personalized proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain proportional representation and caucus recognition)
elections:Bundestag - last held on 22 September 2013 (next to be held no later than autumn 2017); most all postwar German governments have been coalitions; note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
election results:Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 41.5%, SPD 25.7%, Left 8.6%, Greens 8.4%, FDP 4.8%, other 10.9%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 311, SPD 193, Left 64, Greens 63

Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Federal Court of Justice (court consists of 127 judges including the court president, vice-presidents, presiding judges, and other judges, and organized into 25 Senates subdivided into 12 civil panels, 5 criminal panels, and 8 special panels; Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (consists of 2 Senates each subdivided into 3 chambers, each with a chairman and 8 members)
judge selection and term of office:Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated States and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president of Germany; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges - one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68
subordinate courts:Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 German states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts

    Political parties and leaders:
Alliance '90/Greens [Cem OEZDEMIR and Simone PETER]
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]
Christian Social Union or CSU [Horst SEEHOFER]
Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER]
Left Party or Die Linke [Katia KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER]
Social Democratic Party or SPD [Sigmar GABRIEL]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
business associations and employers' organizations

International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Hans Peter WITTIG (since 21 May 2014)
chancery:2300 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:[1] (202) 298-4000
FAX:[1] (202) 298-4261
consulate(s) general:Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador John B. EMERSON (since 7 August 2013)
embassy:Pariser Platz 2, 10117 Berlin
mailing address:Unit 5090, Box 1000, DPO AE09265
telephone:[49] (30) 48305-0
FAX:[49] (30) 8305-1215
consulate(s) general:Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor - a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field

National symbol(s):
golden eagle

National anthem:
name:'Das Lied der Deutschen' (Song of the Germans)

lyrics/music:August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN
note:adopted 1922; the anthem, also known as 'Deutschlandlied' (Song of Germany), was originally adopted for its connection to the March 1848 liberal revolution; following appropriation by the Nazis of the first verse, specifically the phrase, 'Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles' (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, its third verse was adopted by West Germany as its national anthem; in 1990, it became the national anthem for the reunited Germany


Economy - overview:
The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment and benefits from a highly skilled labor force. Like its Western European neighbors, Germany faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and declining net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms. Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, has contributed to strong growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II - and its decrease to 5.3% in 2013. The new German government introduced a minimum wage of $11 per hour to take effect in 2015. Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's total budget deficit - including federal, state, and municipal - to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2012 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.1%. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016 though the target was already reached in 2012. Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country's 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany hopes to replace nuclear power with renewable energy. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$3.227 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
$3.211 trillion (2012 est.)
$3.182 trillion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$3.593 trillion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
0.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
0.9% (2012 est.)
3.4% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$39,500 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$39,200 (2012 est.)
$38,900 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
24.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
24.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:57.6%
government consumption:19.4%
investment in fixed capital:17.5%
investment in inventories:0.1%
exports of goods and services:49.5%
imports of goods and services:-44.1%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
(2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; milk products; cattle, pigs, poultry

among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles

Industrial production growth rate:
-0.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167

Labor force:
44.2 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15

Labor force - by occupation:

Unemployment rate:
5.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
5.5% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
15.5% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:3.6%
highest 10%:24% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
27 (2006)
country comparison to the world: 130
30 (1994)

revenues:$1.626 trillion
expenditures:$1.624 trillion (2013 est.)

    Taxes and other revenues:
45.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
0.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41

Public debt:
79.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
81% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euro; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
2.1% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
0.75% (31 December 2013)
country comparison to the world: 122
1.5% (31 December 2010)
note:this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
2.8% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
3.07% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$2.158 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$2.025 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
note:see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:
$4.551 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$4.342 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$4.457 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$4.277 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.486 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance:
$257.1 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
$238.5 billion (2012 est.)

$1.493 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$1.46 trillion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products

Exports - partners:
France 9.21%, United States 7.85%, United Kingdom 6.53%, Netherlands 6.33%, China 5.91%, Italy 5.05%, Austria 5.03%, Switzerland 4.3%, Belgium 4.04% (2013 est.)

$1.233 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$1.222 trillion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products

Imports - partners:
Netherlands 12.88%, France 7.61%, China 6.25%, Belgium 6.13%, Italy 5.31%, United Kingdom 4.61%, Austria 4.33%, United States 4.19%, Switzerland 4.3%, Austria 4.1%, Poland 4% (2013 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$248.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$238.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$5.717 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$5.338 trillion (31 December 2011)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$1.335 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$1.307 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.871 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
$1.788 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)


Electricity - production:
526.6 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10

Electricity - consumption:
582.5 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7

Electricity - exports:
66.81 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2

Electricity - imports:
46.27 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
178.4 million kW (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
51% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
36% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

Crude oil - production:
169,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42

Crude oil - exports:
14,260 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58

Crude oil - imports:
1.876 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6

    Crude oil - proved reserves:
254.2 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56

Refined petroleum products - production:
2.198 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
2.4 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Refined petroleum products - exports:
376,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

Refined petroleum products - imports:
758,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Natural gas - production:
9 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44

Natural gas - consumption:
75.2 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Natural gas - exports:
18.17 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

Natural gas - imports:
87.96 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Natural gas - proved reserves:
125 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
814 million Mt (2012 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
50.7 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 4

Telephones - mobile cellular:
107.7 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 11

Telephone system:
general assessment:Germany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part
domestic:Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries
international:country code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2011)

    Broadcast media:
a mixture of publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations (2008)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
20.043 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 6

Internet users:
65.125 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 5


539 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 13

Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m:14
2,438 to 3,047 m:49
1,524 to 2,437 m:60
914 to 1,523 m:70
under 914 m:125 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways
1,524 to 2,437 m:1
914 to 1,523 m:35
under 914 m:
185 (2013)

23 (2013)

condensate 37 km; gas 26,985 km; oil 2,826 km; refined products 4,479 km; water 8 km (2013)

total:41,981 kmcountry comparison to the world: 6
standard gauge:41,722 km 1.435-m gauge (20,053 km electrified)
narrow gauge:220 km 1.000-m gauge (75 km electrified); 39 km 0.750-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2008)

total:645,000 kmcountry comparison to the world: 11
paved:645,000 km (includes 12,800 km of expressways)
note:includes local roads (2010)

7,467 km (Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 19

Merchant marine
total:427country comparison to the world: 24
by type:barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 6, cargo 51, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, container 298, liquefied gas 6, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 24, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 6, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned:6 (Finland 3, Netherlands 1, Switzerland 2)
registered in other countries:3,420 (Antigua and Barbuda 1094, Australia 2, Bahamas 30, Bermuda 14, Brazil 6, Bulgaria 12, Burma 1, Cayman Islands 3, Cook Islands 1, Curacao 25, Cyprus 192, Denmark 9, Dominica 5, Estonia 1, France 1, Gibraltar 123, Hong Kong 10, Isle of Man 56, Jamaica 10, Liberia 1185, Luxembourg 9, Malta 135, Marshall Islands 248, Morocco 1, Netherlands 86, NZ 2, Panama 24, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 2, Portugal 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Singapore 32, Slovakia 3, Spain 4, Sri Lanka 8, Sweden 3, UK 59, US 5, Venezuela 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Baltic Sea - Rostock; North Sea - Wilhelmshaven
river port(s):Bremen (Weser); Bremerhaven (Geeste); Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine); Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe); Lubeck (Wakenitz)
oil/gas terminal(s):Brunsbuttel Canal terminals
container port(s):Bremen/Bremerhaven (5,915,487), Hamburg (9,014,165)(2011)


Military branches
Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer); Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm); Air Force (Luftwaffe); Joint Support Services (Streitkraeftebasis, SKB); Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst, ZSanDstBw) (2013)

Military service age and obligation
17-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription ended 1 July 2011; service obligation 8-23 months or 12 years; women have been eligible for voluntary service in all military branches and positions since 2001 (2013)

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:18,529,299
females age 16-49:17,888,543 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:15,027,886
females age 16-49:14,510,527 (2010 est.)

    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
female:384,930 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures
1.35% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 77
1.34% of GDP (2011)
1.35% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin):40,230 (Iraq); 24,449 (Turkey); 24,203 (Afghanistan); 21,253 (Syria); 17,150 (Iran); 8,410 (Serbia) (2013)
stateless persons:5,683 (2012)

    Illicit drugs
source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center
Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book

Doing Business in Germany 2020

Germany Ease of Doing Business Rank: 22 Overall Score: 79.7
Starting a Business (rank) 125
Score 83.7
Procedures - Men (number) 9
Time - Men (number) 8
Cost - Men (days) 6.5
Procedures - Women (days) 9
Time - Women (% of income per capita) 8
Cost - Women (% of income per capita) 6.5
Paid in minimum capital (% of income per capita) 29.8
Dealing with Construction Permits (rank) 30
Score 78.2
Procedures (number) 9
Time (days) 126
Cost (% of warehouse value) 1.1
Building Quality Control Index(0-15) 9.5
Quality of building regulations index (0-2) 1
Quality control before construction index (0-1) 1
Quality control during construction index (0-3) 2
Quality control after construction index (0-3) 2
Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2) 0.5
Professional certifications index (0-4) 3
Getting Electricity (rank) 5
Score 98.8
Procedures (number) 3
Time (days) 28
Cost (% of income per capita) 37
Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 8
Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3) 3
Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1) 1
Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1) 1
Regulatory monitoring (0-1) 1
Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1) 1
Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1) 1
System average interruption duration index (SAIDI) 0.3
System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) 0.3
Minimum outage time (in minutes) 3
Price of electricity (US cents per kWh) 25.6
Registering Property (rank) 76
Score 66.6
Procedures (number) 6
Time (days) 52
Cost (% of property value) 6.6
Quality of land administration index (0-30) 23
Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8) 7
Transparency of information index (0-6) 2
Geographic coverage index (0-8) 8
Land dispute resolution index (0-8) 6
Equal access to property rights index (-2-0) 0
Getting credit (rank) 48
Score 70
Strength of legal rights index (0-12) 6
Depth of credit information index (0-8) 8
Getting Credit total score 14
Credit registry coverage (% of adults) 1.8
Credit bureau coverage (% of adults) 100
Protecting Minority Investors (rank) 61
Score 62
Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 5
Extent of director liability index (0-10) 5
Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 5
Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) 5
Extent of ownership and control index (0-7) 5
Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) 6
Strength of minority investor protection index (0-50) 31
Paying Taxes (rank) 46
Score 82.2
Payments (number per year) 9
Time (hours per year) 218
Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit) 48.8
Profit tax (% of profit) 23.2
Labor tax and contributions (% of profit) 21.5
Other taxes (% of profit) 4.1
Time to comply with VAT refund (hours) 0
Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks) 5
Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours) 5
Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks) 0
Postfiling index (0-100) 97.7
Trading across borders (rank) 42
Score 91.8
Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours) 1
Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours) 1
Time to export: Border compliance (hours) 36
Time to import: Border compliance (hours) 0
Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD) 45
Cost to import: Documentary compliance 0
Cost to export: Border compliance (USD) 345
Cost to import: Border compliance (USD) 0
Enforcing contract (rank) 13
Score 74.1
Time (days) 499
Filing and service (days) 29
Trial and judgment (days) 380
Enforcement of judgment (days) 90
Cost (% of claim) 14.4
Attorney fees (% of claim) 6.6
Court fees (% of claim) 5.4
Enforcement fees (% of claim) 2.4
Quality of the judicial processes index (0-18) 12.5
Court structure and proceedings (0-5) 4.5
Case management (0-6) 1.5
Court automation (0-4) 3.5
Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) 3
Resolving Insolvency (rank) 4
Score 89.8
Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) 1
Time (years) 1.2
Cost (% of estate) 8
Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 79.8
Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16) 15
Commencement of proceedings index (0-3) 3
Management of debtor's assets index (0-6) 6
Reorganization proceedings index (0-3) 3
Creditor participation index (0-4) 3
Information provided by The World Bank Group