Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references:
Southeast Asia

total:1,904,569 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 15
land:1,811,569 sq km
water:93,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
Area comparison map: '>

Land boundaries:
total:2,958 km
border countries:Timor-Leste 253 km, Malaysia 1,881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km

54,716 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm

tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

    Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point:Puncak Jaya 4,884 m

Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land:12.34%
permanent crops:10.5%
other:77.16% (2011)

Irrigated land:
67,220 sq km (2005)

Total renewable water resources:
2,019 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
2,019 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires

Environment - international agreements:
party to:Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
archipelago of 17,508 islands, some 6,000 of which are inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

People and Society

noun: Indonesian(s)

Ethnic groups:
Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)

Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)

Muslim 87.2%, Christian 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

253,609,643 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 5

Age structure:
0-14 years:26.2% (male 33,854,520/female 32,648,568)
15-24 years:17.1% (male 22,067,716/female 21,291,548)
25-54 years:42.3% (male 54,500,650/female 52,723,359)
55-64 years:7.9% (male 9,257,637/female 10,780,724)
65 years and over:6.4% (male 7,176,865/female 9,308,056) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:51 %
youth dependency ratio:43 %
elderly dependency ratio:8 %
potential support ratio:12.5 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total:29.2 years
male:28.7 years
female:29.8 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.95% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 124

Birth rate:
17.04 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 108

Death rate:
6.34 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 156

Net migration rate:
-1.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 154

urban population:50.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:2.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
JAKARTA (capital) 9.769 million; Surabaya 2.787 million; Bandung 2.429 million; Medan 2.118 million; Semarang 1.573 million; Palembang 1.455 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth:1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years:1 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.78 male(s)/female
total population:1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

Maternal mortality rate:
220 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate:
total:25.16 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 71
male:29.45 deaths/1,000 live births
female:20.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:72.17 yearscountry comparison to the world: 137
male:69.59 years
female:74.88 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.18 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 102

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
61.9% (2012)

Health expenditures:
2.7% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density:
0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density:
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
urban: 93% of population
rural: 76.4% of population
total: 84.9% of population
urban: 7% of population
rural: 23.6% of population
total: 15.1% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 71.4% of population
rural: 45.5% of population
total: 58.8% of population
urban: 28.6% of population
rural: 54.5% of population
total: 41.2% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 74

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
605,500 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 15

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
26,800 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 15

Major infectious diseases:

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
4.8% (2008)country comparison to the world: 160

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
18.6% (2010)country comparison to the world: 36

Education expenditures:
2.8% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 143

definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:92.8%
female:90.1% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:13 years
male:13 years
female:13 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:22.2%country comparison to the world: 52
female:23% (2009)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form:Indonesia
local long form:Republik Indonesia
local short form:Indonesia
former:Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies

Government type:

geographic coordinates:6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference:UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
note:Indonesia has three time zones

Administrative divisions:
31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**

17 August 1945 (declared)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

drafted July to August 1945, effective 17 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions, 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959; amended several times, last in 2002 (2013)

Legal system:
civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch:
chief of state:President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government:President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009)
cabinet:Cabinet appointed by the president
elections:president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote; presidential election last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results:Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%

Legislative branch:
People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house; it consists of members of the DPR and DPD and has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution but does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions (132 members, four from each of Indonesia's origianal 30 provinces, two special regions, and one special capital city district)
elections:last held on 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results:percent of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party - PD 148, GOLKAR 107, PDI-P 94, PKS 57, PAN 46, PPP 37, PKB 28, GERINDRA 26, HANURA 17
note:29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties

    Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office:Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement age; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts:High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts

Political parties and leaders:
Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [SUHARDI]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]
People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Anis MATTA]
United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Commission for the 'Disappeared' and Victims of Violence or KontraS

International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Budi BOWOLEKSONO (since 21 May 2014)
chancery:2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:[1] (202) 775-5200
FAX:[1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general:Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador-designate Robert O. BLAKE (since 21 November 2013); Charge d'Affaires Kristen F. BAUER (since 18 July 2013)
embassy:Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address:Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone:[62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX:[62] (21) 386-2259
consulate general:Surabaya
presence post:Medan
consular agency:Bali

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity

National symbol(s):
garuda (mythical bird)

National anthem:
name:'Indonesia Raya' (Great Indonesia)

lyrics/music:Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN
note:adopted 1945


Economy - overview:
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has grown strongly since 2010. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25% and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The government also faces the challenges of quelling labor unrest and reducing fuel subsidies in the face of high oil prices.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.285 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$1.22 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.149 trillion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$867.5 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
5.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
6.2% (2012 est.)
6.5% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,200 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
$5,000 (2012 est.)
$4,800 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
31.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
32.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
33.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:56%
government consumption:9.4%
investment in fixed capital:32.7%
investment in inventories:2%
exports of goods and services:23.5%
imports of goods and services:-25.8%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
services:39.1% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices

petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instuments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
4.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67

Labor force:
120 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Labor force - by occupation:
services:47.9% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate:
6.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
6.1% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
11.7% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:3.3%
highest 10%:29.9% (2009)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
36.8 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 82
39.4 (2005)

revenues:$137.5 billion
expenditures:$166 billion (2013 est.)

    Taxes and other revenues:
15.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133

Public debt:
24.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
23% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.7% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
4.3% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
6.37% (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 57
6.46% (31 December 2009)
note:this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
12.1% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
11.8% (31 December 2012 est.)
note:these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans

Stock of narrow money:
$82.99 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
$87.04 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$325 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$342 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$336.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
$350 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$396.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance:
-$28.72 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
-$24.07 billion (2012 est.)

$178.9 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$187.3 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber

Exports - partners:
Japan 15.9%, China 11.4%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 7.9%, US 7.8%, India 6.6%, Malaysia 5.9% (2012)

$178.6 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
$178.7 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
China 15.3%, Singapore 13.6%, Japan 11.9%, Malaysia 6.4%, South Korea 6.2%, US 6.1%, Thailand 6% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$83.45 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
$112.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:
$223.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
$224.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$207.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
$192.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$17.41 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$14.81 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
10,341.6 (2013 est.)
9,386.63 (2012 est.)
9,090.4 (2010 est.)
10,389.9 (2009)
9,698.9 (2008)


Electricity - production:
173.8 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Electricity - consumption:
158 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150

Electricity - imports:
2.542 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
39.9 million kW (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
87% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
9.9% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
3.1% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60

Crude oil - production:
974,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Crude oil - exports:
338,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Crude oil - imports:
388,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

    Crude oil - proved reserves:
4.03 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27

Refined petroleum products - production:
935,300 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1.322 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

Refined petroleum products - exports:
142,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Refined petroleum products - imports:
473,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Natural gas - production:
76.25 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Natural gas - consumption:
39.56 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24

Natural gas - exports:
38.67 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207

Natural gas - proved reserves:
3.069 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
426.8 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
37.983 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 8

Telephones - mobile cellular:
281.96 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 4

Telephone system:
general assessment:domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good
domestic:coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international:country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)

    Broadcast media:
mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2008)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
1.344 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 42

Internet users:
20 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 22


673 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 10

Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m:5
2,438 to 3,047 m:21
1,524 to 2,437 m:51
914 to 1,523 m:72
under 914 m:37 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways
1,524 to 2,437 m:4
914 to 1,523 m:23
under 914 m:
460 (2013)

76 (2013)

condensate 1,064 km; condensate/gas 150 km; gas 11,702 km; liquid petroleum gas 119 km; oil 7,767 km; oil/gas/water 77 km; refined products 728 km; unknown 53 km; water 44 km (2013)

total:5,042 kmcountry comparison to the world: 35
narrow gauge:5,042 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2008)

total:496,607 kmcountry comparison to the world: 13
paved:283,102 km
unpaved:213,505 km (2011)

21,579 km (2011)
country comparison to the world: 7

Merchant marine
total:1,340country comparison to the world: 8
by type:bulk carrier 105, cargo 618, chemical tanker 69, container 120, liquefied gas 28, passenger 49, passenger/cargo 77, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 11
foreign-owned:69 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 8, Jordan 1, Malaysia 1, Norway 3, Singapore 46, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, UK 2, US 2)
registered in other countries:95 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 2, Hong Kong 10, Liberia 4, Marshall Islands 1, Mongolia 2, Panama 10, Singapore 60, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
container port(s) (TEUs):Tanjung Priok (5,617,562)

Transportation - note
the International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; attacks have increased yearly since 2009; in 2012, 73 commercial vessels were boarded and 47 crew members taken hostage; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift


Military branches
Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2013)

Military service age and obligation
18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2012)

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:65,847,171
females age 16-49:63,228,017 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:54,264,299
females age 16-49:53,274,361 (2010 est.)

    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
female:2,191,267 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures
0.78% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 116
0.67% of GDP (2011)
0.78% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international
Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary

    Refugees and internally displaced persons
IDPs:at least 90,000 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2012 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Papua, West Papua, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, Maluku, North Maluku) (2014) (2011)

Illicit drugs
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy
Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book

Doing Business in Indonesia 2020

Indonesia Ease of Doing Business Rank: 73 Overall Score: 69.6
Starting a Business (rank) 140
Score 81.2
Procedures - Men (number) 11
Time - Men (number) 13
Cost - Men (days) 5.7
Procedures - Women (days) 11
Time - Women (% of income per capita) 13
Cost - Women (% of income per capita) 5.7
Paid in minimum capital (% of income per capita) 0
Dealing with Construction Permits (rank) 110
Score 66.8
Procedures (number) 18
Time (days) 200
Cost (% of warehouse value) 4.5
Building Quality Control Index(0-15) 13.8
Quality of building regulations index (0-2) 1.8
Quality control before construction index (0-1) 1
Quality control during construction index (0-3) 2
Quality control after construction index (0-3) 3
Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2) 2
Professional certifications index (0-4) 4
Getting Electricity (rank) 33
Score 87.3
Procedures (number) 4
Time (days) 32
Cost (% of income per capita) 233.8
Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 6
Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3) 2
Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1) 1
Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1) 1
Regulatory monitoring (0-1) 1
Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1) 1
Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1) 0
System average interruption duration index (SAIDI) 2.8
System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) 2.2
Minimum outage time (in minutes) 5
Price of electricity (US cents per kWh) 10.9
Registering Property (rank) 106
Score 60
Procedures (number) 6
Time (days) 31
Cost (% of property value) 8.3
Quality of land administration index (0-30) 15.5
Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8) 5
Transparency of information index (0-6) 3
Geographic coverage index (0-8) 0
Land dispute resolution index (0-8) 7.5
Equal access to property rights index (-2-0) 0
Getting credit (rank) 48
Score 70
Strength of legal rights index (0-12) 6
Depth of credit information index (0-8) 8
Getting Credit total score 14
Credit registry coverage (% of adults) 30.9
Credit bureau coverage (% of adults) 40.4
Protecting Minority Investors (rank) 37
Score 70
Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 10
Extent of director liability index (0-10) 5
Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 2
Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) 5
Extent of ownership and control index (0-7) 6
Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) 7
Strength of minority investor protection index (0-50) 35
Paying Taxes (rank) 81
Score 75.8
Payments (number per year) 26
Time (hours per year) 191
Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit) 30.1
Profit tax (% of profit) 18.1
Labor tax and contributions (% of profit) 11.6
Other taxes (% of profit) 0.4
Time to comply with VAT refund (hours) 18
Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks) 48
Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours) 3
Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks) 0
Postfiling index (0-100) 68.8
Trading across borders (rank) 116
Score 67.5
Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours) 61
Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours) 106
Time to export: Border compliance (hours) 56
Time to import: Border compliance (hours) 99
Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD) 139
Cost to import: Documentary compliance 164
Cost to export: Border compliance (USD) 211
Cost to import: Border compliance (USD) 383
Enforcing contract (rank) 139
Score 49.1
Time (days) 403
Filing and service (days) 60
Trial and judgment (days) 143
Enforcement of judgment (days) 200
Cost (% of claim) 70.3
Attorney fees (% of claim) 46.7
Court fees (% of claim) 11.7
Enforcement fees (% of claim) 11.9
Quality of the judicial processes index (0-18) 8.9
Court structure and proceedings (0-5) 3
Case management (0-6) 2.8
Court automation (0-4) 0.6
Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) 2.5
Resolving Insolvency (rank) 38
Score 68.1
Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) 1
Time (years) 1.1
Cost (% of estate) 21.6
Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 65.5
Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16) 10.5
Commencement of proceedings index (0-3) 3
Management of debtor's assets index (0-6) 5
Reorganization proceedings index (0-3) 0.5
Creditor participation index (0-4) 2
Information provided by The World Bank Group