Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

Geographic coordinates:
42 50 N, 12 50 E

Map references:

total:301,340 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 72
land:294,140 sq km
water:7,200 sq km
note:includes Sardinia and Sicily

Area - comparative:
Area comparison map: '>

Land boundaries:
total:1,836 km
border countries:Austria 404 km, France 476 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3 km, San Marino 37 km, Slovenia 218 km, Switzerland 698 km

7,600 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
continental shelf:200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

    Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point:Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)

Natural resources:
coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land

Land use:
arable land:22.57%
permanent crops:8.37%
other:69.07% (2011)

Irrigated land:
39,510 sq km (2007)

Total renewable water resources:
191.3 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
191.3 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice

Environment - current issues:
air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities

Environment - international agreements:
party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

People and Society

noun: Italian(s)

Ethnic groups:
Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)

Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German-speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)

Christian 80% (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehovah's Witnesses and Protestants), Muslim (about 800,000 to 1 million), Atheist and Agnostic 20%

61,680,122 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 24

Age structure:
0-14 years:13.8% (male 4,340,943/female 4,154,547)
15-24 years:9.8% (male 3,046,202/female 3,028,190)
25-54 years:43% (male 13,107,098/female 13,405,812)
55-64 years:12.4% (male 3,703,329/female 3,942,261)
65 years and over:20.8% (male 5,548,047/female 7,403,693) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:55 %
youth dependency ratio:21.8 %
elderly dependency ratio:33.3 %
potential support ratio:3 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total:44.5 years
male:43.3 years
female:45.6 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.3% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 171

Birth rate:
8.84 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 212

Death rate:
10.1 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 48

Net migration rate:
4.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 29

urban population:68.4% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:0.49% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
ROME (capital) 3.298 million; Milan 2.909 million; Naples 2.373 million; Turin 1.613 million; Palermo 915,000; Bergamo 784,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth:1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years:0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.74 male(s)/female
total population:0.93 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

    Mother's mean age at first birth:
30.3 (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate:
total:3.31 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 213
male:3.51 deaths/1,000 live births
female:3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population:82.03 yearscountry comparison to the world: 11
male:79.4 years
female:84.82 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.42 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 205

Health expenditures:
9.5% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density:
3.8 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density:
3.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 87

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
140,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 37

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 77

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
19.8% (2008)country comparison to the world: 97

Education expenditures:
4.5% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 93

definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:99%
female:98.7% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:16 years
male:16 years
female:17 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:35.3%country comparison to the world: 18
female:37.5% (2012)


Country name:
conventional long form: Italian Republic
conventional short form:Italy
local long form:Repubblica Italiana
local short form:Italia
former:Kingdom of Italy

Government type:

geographic coordinates:41 54 N, 12 29 E
time difference:UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma)

17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)

National holiday:
Republic Day, 2 June (1946)

previous 1848 (originally for Kingdom of Sardinia and adopted by Kingdom of Italy in 1861); latest enacted 22 December 1947, adopted 27 December 1947, entered into force 1 January 1948; amended many times, last in 2012 (2013)

Legal system:
civil law system; judicial review of legislation under certain conditions in Constitutional Court

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25

Executive branch:
chief of state:President Giorgio NAPOLITANO (since 15 May 2006)
head of government:Prime Minister Matteo RENZI (since 22 February 2014); note - the prime minister is referred to as the President of the Council of Ministers
cabinet:Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and nominated by the President of the Republic
elections:president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18-20 April 2013 (next scheduled for 2020); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament; national parliamentary elections were last held on 24-25 February 2013
election results:Giorgio NAPOLITANO elected president on the sixth round of voting; electoral college vote - 738 out of a possible 1,007 (504 votes required); Enrico LETTA sworn in as prime minister on 28 April 2013 following formal talks between the center-left Democratic Party (PD), the center-right People of Freedom party (PdL), the centrist Civic Choice, and President NAPOLITANO that also led to the creation of a broad coalition government; the talks coming after the February 2013 legislative election produced a stalemate that impeded government formation; the PdL split into the Forza Italia and the New Center Right (NCD) in November 2013 and only the NCD remained in the governing coalition

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (321 seats; members elected by proportional vote with the winning coalition in each region receiving 55% of seats from that region; members to serve five-year terms; and up to 5 senators for life appointed by the president of the Republic) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; members elected by popular vote with the winning national coalition receiving 54% of chamber seats; members to serve five-year terms); note - it has not been clarified if each president has the power to designate up to five senators or if five is the number of senators for life who might sit in the Senate
elections:Senate - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results:Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition [Pier Luigi BERSANI] 123 (PD 111, SEL 7, SVP 2, other 3), center-right coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI] 117 (PdL 98, LN 18, other 1), M5S 54, centrist coalition [Mario MONTI] 19, other 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition [Pier Luigi BERSANI] 345 (PD 297, SEL 37, CD 6 SVP 5), center-right coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI] 125 (PdL 98, LN 18, FdI 9), M5S 109, centrist coalition [Mario MONTI] 47, other 4; note - President NAPOLITANO dissolved Parliament on 22 December 2012

    Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court of Cassation or Corte Suprema di Cassazione (organized into penal, civil, administrative, and military divisions, each with a president and several judges); Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (consists of 15 judges)
judge selection and term of office:Supreme Court judges appointed by the Superior Council of the Judiciary, headed by the president, to serve NA terms; Constitutional Court judges - 5 appointed by the president, 5 elected by parliament, 5 elected by select higher courts; judges serve up to 9 years)
subordinate courts:various lower civil and criminal courts (primary and secondary tribunals, courts, and courts of appeal)

Political parties and leaders:
manufacturers and merchants associations - Confcommercio; Confindustria
organized farm groups - Confcoltivatori; Confagricoltura; Roman Catholic Church
three major trade union confederations - Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] which is left wing; Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI], which is Roman Catholic centrist; Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist

International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Claudio BISOGNIERO (since 13 January 2012)
chancery:3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:[1] (202) 612-4400
FAX:[1] (202) 518-2154
consulate(s) general:Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
consulate(s):Detroit, Newark (NJ), San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador John R. PHILLIPS (since 16 August 2013); note - also accredited to San Marino
embassy:Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome
mailing address:PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
telephone:[39] (06) 46741
FAX:[39] (06) 4674-2244
consulate(s) general:Florence, Milan, Naples

Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; design inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797; colors are those of Milan (red and white) combined with the green uniform color of the Milanese civic guard

National symbol(s):
white, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia)

National anthem:
name:'Il Canto degli Italiani' (The Song of the Italians)

lyrics/music:Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVARO
note:adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as 'L'Inno di Mameli' (Mameli's Hymn), and 'Fratelli D'Italia' (Brothers of Italy)


Economy - overview:
Italy has a diversified industrial economy, which is divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, where unemployment is higher. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors. Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro-zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, topping 133% of GDP in 2013, but investor concerns about Italy and the broader euro-zone crisis eased in 2013, bringing down Italy's borrowing costs on sovereign government debt from euro-era records. The government still faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its efforts to address Italy's long-standing structural impediments to growth, such as labor market inefficiencies and widespread tax evasion. In 2013 economic growth and labor market conditions deteriorated, with growth at -1.8% and unemployment rising to 12.4%, with youth unemployment around 40%. Italy's GDP is now 8% below its 2007 pre-crisis level.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.805 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
$1.838 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.883 trillion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.068 trillion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
-1.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
-2.4% (2012 est.)
0.4% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$29,600 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
$29,800 (2012 est.)
$30,100 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
17.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
16.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
16.4% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:60%
government consumption:20.6%
investment in fixed capital:17.6%
investment in inventories:-0.3%
exports of goods and services:30.1%
imports of goods and services:-27.9%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
services:73.5% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish

tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics

Industrial production growth rate:
-2.7% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183

Labor force:
25.74 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

Labor force - by occupation:
services:67.8% (2011)

Unemployment rate:
12.4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
10.7% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
29.9% (2012)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:2.3%
highest 10%:26.8% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
31.9 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
27.3 (1995)

revenues:$984 billion
expenditures:$1.052 trillion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
47.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130

Public debt:
133% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
126.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:Italy reports its data on public debt according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty; general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year, in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the central government, state government, local government and social security funds

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
3% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
0.25% (31 December 2013)
country comparison to the world: 131
0.75% (31 December 2012)
note:this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
5.2% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
5.22% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$1.138 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
$1.162 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
note:see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:
$2.15 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
$2.134 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$3.407 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
$3.438 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$480.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance:
-$2.4 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
-$14.88 billion (2012 est.)

$474 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
$478.9 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals, nonferrous metals

Exports - partners:
Germany 12.63%, France 11.11%, United States 6.84%, Switzerland 5.72%, United Kingdom 4.72%, Spain 4.48% (2013 est.)

$435.8 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$453.5 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, and tobacco

Imports - partners:
Germany 14.73%, France 8.4%, China 8.4%, Russia 6.35%, Netherlands 5.85%, Spain 4.54%, Belgium 4.09% (2013 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$181.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$173.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$2.604 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
$2.516 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$466.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$457.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$683.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$653.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)


Electricity - production:
299.3 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Electricity - consumption:
307.2 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Electricity - exports:
2.304 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42

Electricity - imports:
45.41 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
124.2 million kW (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
65% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
18% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
15.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Crude oil - production:
112,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48

Crude oil - exports:
6,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63

Crude oil - imports:
1.591 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7

    Crude oil - proved reserves:
521.3 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Refined petroleum products - production:
6,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1.454 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15

Refined petroleum products - exports:
628,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Refined petroleum products - imports:
393,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15

Natural gas - production:
7.8 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47

Natural gas - consumption:
68.7 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10

Natural gas - exports:
324 million cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48

Natural gas - imports:
67.8 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Natural gas - proved reserves:
62.35 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
400.9 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
21.656 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 13

Telephones - mobile cellular:
97.225 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 14

Telephone system:
general assessment:modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
domestic:high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks
international:country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat (2011)

    Broadcast media:
two Italian media giants dominate - the publicly owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations; a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite TV network; RAI operates 3 AM/FM nationwide radio stations; some 1,300 commercial radio stations (2007)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
25.662 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 4

Internet users:
29.235 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 13


129 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 45

Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m:9
2,438 to 3,047 m:31
1,524 to 2,437 m:18
914 to 1,523 m:29
under 914 m:11 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways
1,524 to 2,437 m:1
914 to 1,523 m:10
under 914 m:
20 (2013)

5 (2013)

gas 20,223 km; oil 1,393 km; refined products 1,574 km (2013)

total:20,255 kmcountry comparison to the world: 13
standard gauge:18,611 km 1.435-m gauge (12,662 km electrified)
narrow gauge:123 km 1.000-m gauge (123 km electrified); 1,290 km 0.950-m gauge (151 km electrified); 231 km 0.850-m gauge (2008)

total:487,700 kmcountry comparison to the world: 14
paved:487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)

2,400 km (used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 37

Merchant marine
total:681country comparison to the world: 17
by type:bulk carrier 105, cargo 42, carrier 1, chemical tanker 164, container 21, liquefied gas 28, passenger 25, passenger/cargo 154, petroleum tanker 59, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 39, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 30
foreign-owned:90 (Denmark 4, France 2, Greece 7, Luxembourg 14, Netherlands 2, Nigeria 1, Norway 6, Singapore 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 13, Taiwan 10, Turkey 4, UK 2, US 23)
registered in other countries:201 (Bahamas 1, Belize 3, Cayman Islands 7, Cyprus 6, Georgia 2, Gibraltar 4, Greece 5, Liberia 47, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 1, Morocco 1, Netherlands 6, Panama 25, Portugal 12, Russia 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Singapore 5, Slovakia 2, Spain 1, Sweden 5, Turkey 1, UK 3, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Augusta, Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Taranto, Trieste, Venice
oil terminals:Melilli (Santa Panagia) oil terminal, Sarroch oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs):Genoa (1,847,648), Gioia Tauro (2,264,798), La Spezia (1,307,274)


Military branches
Italian Armed Forces: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Arma dei Carabinieri, CC) (2011)

Military service age and obligation
18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in any military branch; Italian citizenship required; 12-month service obligation (2013)

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:13,865,688
females age 16-49:14,003,755 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:11,247,446
females age 16-49:11,348,695 (2010 est.)

    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
female:281,671 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures
1.69% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 53
1.72% of GDP (2011)
1.69% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international
Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa

Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin):12,682 (Eritrea); 10,817 (Somalia); 6,695 (Afghanistan) (2013)
stateless persons:470 (2012)

    Illicit drugs
important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling
Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book

Doing Business in Italy 2020

Italy Ease of Doing Business Rank: 58 Overall Score: 72.9
Starting a Business (rank) 98
Score 86.8
Procedures - Men (number) 7
Time - Men (number) 11
Cost - Men (days) 13.8
Procedures - Women (days) 7
Time - Women (% of income per capita) 11
Cost - Women (% of income per capita) 13.8
Paid in minimum capital (% of income per capita) 0
Dealing with Construction Permits (rank) 97
Score 68.3
Procedures (number) 14
Time (days) 189.5
Cost (% of warehouse value) 3.4
Building Quality Control Index(0-15) 11
Quality of building regulations index (0-2) 2
Quality control before construction index (0-1) 0
Quality control during construction index (0-3) 2
Quality control after construction index (0-3) 3
Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2) 2
Professional certifications index (0-4) 2
Getting Electricity (rank) 38
Score 86.1
Procedures (number) 4
Time (days) 75
Cost (% of income per capita) 138.9
Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 7
Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3) 2
Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1) 1
Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1) 1
Regulatory monitoring (0-1) 1
Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1) 1
Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1) 1
System average interruption duration index (SAIDI) 1.3
System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) 2.2
Minimum outage time (in minutes) 3
Price of electricity (US cents per kWh) 16.8
Registering Property (rank) 26
Score 81.7
Procedures (number) 4
Time (days) 16
Cost (% of property value) 4.4
Quality of land administration index (0-30) 26.5
Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8) 8
Transparency of information index (0-6) 4.5
Geographic coverage index (0-8) 8
Land dispute resolution index (0-8) 6
Equal access to property rights index (-2-0) 0
Getting credit (rank) 119
Score 45
Strength of legal rights index (0-12) 2
Depth of credit information index (0-8) 7
Getting Credit total score 9
Credit registry coverage (% of adults) 31.1
Credit bureau coverage (% of adults) 100
Protecting Minority Investors (rank) 51
Score 66
Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 7
Extent of director liability index (0-10) 4
Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 6
Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) 5
Extent of ownership and control index (0-7) 4
Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) 7
Strength of minority investor protection index (0-50) 33
Paying Taxes (rank) 128
Score 64
Payments (number per year) 14
Time (hours per year) 238
Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit) 59.1
Profit tax (% of profit) 14.6
Labor tax and contributions (% of profit) 42.9
Other taxes (% of profit) 1.6
Time to comply with VAT refund (hours) 42
Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks) 63
Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours) 5
Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks) 0
Postfiling index (0-100) 52.4
Trading across borders (rank) 1
Score 100
Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours) 1
Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours) 1
Time to export: Border compliance (hours) 0
Time to import: Border compliance (hours) 0
Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD) 0
Cost to import: Documentary compliance 0
Cost to export: Border compliance (USD) 0
Cost to import: Border compliance (USD) 0
Enforcing contract (rank) 122
Score 53.1
Time (days) 1120
Filing and service (days) 10
Trial and judgment (days) 840
Enforcement of judgment (days) 270
Cost (% of claim) 27.6
Attorney fees (% of claim) 19
Court fees (% of claim) 3.9
Enforcement fees (% of claim) 4.7
Quality of the judicial processes index (0-18) 13
Court structure and proceedings (0-5) 3
Case management (0-6) 4
Court automation (0-4) 3
Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) 3
Resolving Insolvency (rank) 21
Score 77.5
Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) 1
Time (years) 1.8
Cost (% of estate) 22
Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 65.6
Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16) 13.5
Commencement of proceedings index (0-3) 3
Management of debtor's assets index (0-6) 5.5
Reorganization proceedings index (0-3) 3
Creditor participation index (0-4) 2
Information provided by The World Bank Group