Southeastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam

Geographic coordinates:
2 30 N, 112 30 E

Map references:
Southeast Asia

total:329,847 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 67
land:328,657 sq km
water:1,190 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total:2,669 km
border countries:Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782 km, Thailand 506 km

4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)

Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea

tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

    Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point:Gunung Kinabalu 4,100 m

Natural resources:
tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite

Land use:
arable land:5.44%
permanent crops:17.49%
other:77.07% (2011)

Irrigated land:
3,800 sq km (2009)

Total renewable water resources:
580 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
580 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
flooding; landslides; forest fires

Environment - current issues:
air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires

Environment - international agreements:
party to:Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea

People and Society

noun: Malaysian(s)

Ethnic groups:
Malay 50.1%, Chinese 22.6%, indigenous 11.8%, Indian 6.7%, other 0.7%, non-citizens 8.2% (2010 est.)

Bahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai

Muslim (official) 61.3%, Buddhist 19.8%, Christian 9.2%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, other traditional Chinese religions 1.3%, other 0.4%, none 0.8%, unspecified 1% (2010 est.)

30,073,353 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 44

Age structure:
0-14 years:28.8% (male 4,456,033/female 4,206,727)
15-24 years:16.9% (male 2,580,486/female 2,511,579)
25-54 years:41.2% (male 6,277,694/female 6,114,312)
55-64 years:7.6% (male 1,163,861/female 1,122,746)
65 years and over:5.3% (male 777,338/female 862,577) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:45.5 %
youth dependency ratio:37.4 %
elderly dependency ratio:8.1 %
potential support ratio:12.4 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total:27.7 years
male:27.4 years
female:27.9 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.47% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 83

Birth rate:
20.06 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 85

Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 187

Net migration rate:
-0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 populationcountry comparison to the world: 131
note:does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal immigrants from other countries in the region (2014 est.)

urban population:72.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:2.49% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
KUALA LUMPUR (capital) 1.556 million; Klang 1.19 million; Johor Bahru 1.045 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth:1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years:1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.89 male(s)/female
total population:1.03 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
29 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate:
total:13.69 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 115
male:15.82 deaths/1,000 live births
female:11.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:74.52 yearscountry comparison to the world: 110
male:71.74 years
female:77.48 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.58 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 76

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
49% (2004)

Health expenditures:
3.6% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density:
1.2 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density:
1.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 98.5% of population
total: 99.6% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1.5% of population
total: 0.4% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 96.1% of population
rural: 94.6% of population
total: 95.7% of population
urban: 3.9% of population
rural: 5.4% of population
total: 4.3% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 82

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
82,000 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 49

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
5,200 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 38

Major infectious diseases:

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
14% (2008)country comparison to the world: 123

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
12.9% (2006)country comparison to the world: 58

Education expenditures:
5.9% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 46

definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:93.1%
female:90.7% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:13 years
male:13 years
female:13 years (2005)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:10.3%country comparison to the world: 109
female:11% (2012)


Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form:Malaysia
local long form:none
local short form:Malaysia
former:Federation of Malaya

Government type:
constitutional monarchy

name:Kuala Lumpur; note - Putrajaya is referred to as an administrative center not the capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur
geographic coordinates:3 10 N, 101 42 E
time difference:UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu; and 1 federal territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) with 3 components, Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya

31 August 1957 (from the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day 31 August (1957) (independence of Malaya); Malaysia Day 16 September (1963) (formation of Malaysia)

previous 1948; latest drafted 21 February 1957, effective 27 August 1957; amended many times, last in 2007 (2010)

Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state:King Tuanku ABDUL HALIM Mu'adzam Shah (selected on 13 December 2011; installed on 11 April 2012); the position of the king is primarily ceremonial
head of government:Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (since 3 April 2009); Deputy Prime Minister MUHYIDDIN bin Mohamed Yassin (since 9 April 2009)
cabinet:Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament with consent of the king
elections:kings are elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; selection is based on the principle of rotation among rulers of states; elections were last held on 14 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); prime ministers are designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands the support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister (since independence this has been the leader of the UMNO party)
election results:Tuanku ABDUL HALIM Mu'adzam Shah elected king by fellow hereditary rulers of nine states; Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak was sworn in as prime minister the day after his National Front (BN) coalition won a majority of seats during the 5 May 2013 national election; NAJIB was re-elected uncontested as UMNO president on 19 October 2013

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 members appointed by the king, 26 elected by 13 state legislatures to serve three-year terms with a two term limit) and House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (222 seats; members elected in 222 constituencies in a first-pass-the-post system to serve up to five-year terms)
elections:House of Representatives - last held on 5 May 2013 (next to be held by May 2018)
election results:House of Representatives - percent of vote - BN coalition 47.4%, opposition parties 50.9%, others 1.7%; seats - BN coalition 133, opposition parties 89

    Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Federal Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges)
note - Malaysia has a dual judicial hierarchy of civil and religious (sharia) courts
judge selection and term of office:Federal Court justices appointed by the monarch on advice of the prime minister; judges serve till age 65
subordinate courts:Court of Appeal; High Court; Sessions Court; Magistrates' Court

Political parties and leaders:
Bar Council
BERSIH (electoral reform coalition)
PEMBELA (Muslim NGO coalition)
PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)
other:religious groups; women's groups; youth groups

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador AWANG ADEK Bin Hussin (since 21 May 2015)
chancery:3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:[1] (202) 572-9700
FAX:[1] (202) 572-9882
consulate(s) general:Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Joseph Y. YUN (since 12 September 2013)
embassy:376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address:US Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone:[60] (3) 2168-5000
FAX:[60] (3) 2142-2207

Flag description:
14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star; the flag is often referred to as Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory); the 14 stripes stand for the equal status in the federation of the 13 member states and the federal government; the 14 points on the star represent the unity between these entities; the crescent is a traditional symbol of Islam; blue symbolizes the unity of the Malay people and yellow is the royal color of Malay rulers

National symbol(s):

National anthem:
name:'Negaraku' (My Country)

lyrics/music:collective, led by Tunku ABDUL RAHMAN/Pierre Jean DE BERANGER
note:adopted 1957; the full version is only performed in the presence of the king; the tune, which was adopted from a popular French melody titled 'La Rosalie,' was originally the anthem of the state of Perak


Economy - overview:
Malaysia, a middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Under current Prime Minister NAJIB, Malaysia is attempting to achieve high-income status by 2020 and to move farther up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in Islamic finance, high technology industries, biotechnology, and services. NAJIB's Economic Transformation Program (ETP) is a series of projects and policy measures intended to accelerate the country's economic growth. The government has also taken steps to liberalize some services sub-sectors. The NAJIB administration also is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand and reduce the economy's dependence on exports. Nevertheless, exports - particularly of electronics, oil and gas, palm oil and rubber - remain a significant driver of the economy. As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia has profited from higher world energy prices, although the rising cost of domestic gasoline and diesel fuel, combined with sustained budget deficits, has forced Kuala Lumpur to begin to address fiscal shortfalls, through initial reductions in energy and sugar subsidies and the announcement of the 2015 implementation of a 6% goods and services tax. The government is also trying to lessen its dependence on state oil producer Petronas. The oil and gas sector supplies about 32% of government revenue in 2013. Bank Negara Malaysia (central bank) maintains healthy foreign exchange reserves, and a well-developed regulatory regime has limited Malaysia's exposure to riskier financial instruments and the global financial crisis. Nevertheless, Malaysia could be vulnerable to a fall in commodity prices or a general slowdown in global economic activity because exports are a major component of GDP. In order to attract increased investment, NAJIB earlier raised possible revisions to the special economic and social preferences accorded to ethnic Malays under the New Economic Policy of 1970, but retreated in 2013 after he encountered significant opposition from Malay nationalists and other vested interests. In September 2013 NAJIB launched the new Bumiputra Economic Empowerment Program (BEEP), policies that favor and advance the economic condition of ethnic Malays.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$525 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
$501.5 billion (2012 est.)
$474.7 billion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$312.4 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
4.7% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
5.6% (2012 est.)
5.1% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$17,500 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
$17,000 (2012 est.)
$16,400 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
32.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
31.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
34.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:50.1%
government consumption:13.9%
investment in fixed capital:26.2%
investment in inventories:0.8%
exports of goods and services:84.1%
imports of goods and services:-75.2%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
services:48.1% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
Peninsular Malaysia - palm oil, rubber, cocoa, rice; Sabah - palm oil, subsistence crops; rubber, timber; Sarawak - palm oil, rubber, timber; pepper

Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics and semi-conductors, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum and natural gas production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum and natural gas production, logging

Industrial production growth rate:
5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

Labor force:
13.19 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41

Labor force - by occupation:
services:53.5% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate:
3.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
3% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
3.8% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:1.8%
highest 10%:34.7% (2009 est.)

    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
46.2 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 33
49.2 (1997)

revenues:$65.72 billion
expenditures:$79.4 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
21% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157

Public debt:
54.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
53.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:this figure is based on the amount of federal government debt, RM501.6 billion ($167.2 billion) in 2012; this includes Malaysian Treasury bills and other government securities, as well as loans raised externally and bonds and notes issued overseas; this figure excludes debt issued by non-financial public enterprises and guaranteed by the federal government, which was an additional $47.7 billion in 2012

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
1.7% (2012 est.)
note:approximately 30% of goods are price-controlled

Central bank discount rate:
3% (31 December 2011)
country comparison to the world: 107
2.83% (31 December 2010)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
4.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
4.7% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$97.03 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
$93.89 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$439.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$435.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$421 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
$412.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$476.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance:
$16.67 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$18.64 billion (2012 est.)

$230.7 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$227.7 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
semiconductors and electronic equipment, palm oil, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals, solar panels

Exports - partners:
Singapore 13.6%, China 12.6%, Japan 11.8%, US 8.7%, Thailand 5.4%, Hong Kong 4.3%, India 4.2%, Australia 4.1% (2012)

$192.9 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
$186.9 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals

Imports - partners:
China 15.1%, Singapore 13.3%, Japan 10.3%, US 8.1%, Thailand 6%, Indonesia 5.1%, South Korea 4.1% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$139.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
$139.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:
$100.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$98.82 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$143.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
$132.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$133.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
$120.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
ringgits (MYR) per US dollar -
3.174 (2013 est.)
3.09 (2012 est.)
3.22 (2010 est.)
3.52 (2009)
3.33 (2008)


Electricity - production:
118 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31

Electricity - consumption:
112 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30

Electricity - exports:
151 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72

Electricity - imports:
33 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
25.39 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
91.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
8.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205

Crude oil - production:
642,700 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29

Crude oil - exports:
269,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

Crude oil - imports:
160,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37

    Crude oil - proved reserves:
4 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

Refined petroleum products - production:
568,800 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
542,900 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Refined petroleum products - exports:
176,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34

Refined petroleum products - imports:
175,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31

Natural gas - production:
61.73 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15

Natural gas - consumption:
32.62 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

Natural gas - exports:
33.1 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Natural gas - imports:
1.99 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48

Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.35 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
191.4 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
4.589 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 34

Telephones - mobile cellular:
41.325 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 30

Telephone system:
general assessment:modern system featuring good intercity service on Peninsular Malaysia provided mainly by microwave radio relay and an adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service excellent
domestic:domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 140 per 100 persons
international:country code - 60; landing point for several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)

    Broadcast media:
state-owned TV broadcaster operates 2 TV networks with relays throughout the country, and the leading private commercial media group operates 4 TV stations with numerous relays throughout the country; satellite TV subscription service is available; state-owned radio broadcaster operates multiple national networks as well as regional and local stations; many private commercial radio broadcasters and some subscription satellite radio services are available; about 55 radio stations overall (2012)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
422,470 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 53

Internet users:
15.355 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 26


114 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 51

Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m:8
2,438 to 3,047 m:8
1,524 to 2,437 m:7
914 to 1,523 m:8
under 914 m:8 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways
914 to 1,523 m:6
under 914 m:
69 (2013)

4 (2013)

condensate 354 km; gas 6,439 km; liquid petroleum gas 155 km; oil 1,937 km; oil/gas/water 43 km; refined products 114 km; water 26 km (2013)

total:1,849 kmcountry comparison to the world: 75
standard gauge:57 km 1.435-m gauge (57 km electrified)
narrow gauge:1,792 km 1.000-m gauge (150 km electrified) (2010)

total:144,403 km (does not include local roads)country comparison to the world: 33
paved:116,169 km (includes 1,821 km of expressways)
unpaved:28,234 km (2010)

7,200 km (Peninsular Malaysia 3,200 km; Sabah 1,500 km; Sarawak 2,500 km) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 20

Merchant marine
total:315country comparison to the world: 31
by type:bulk carrier 11, cargo 83, carrier 2, chemical tanker 47, container 41, liquefied gas 34, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 86, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 5
foreign-owned:26 (Denmark 1, Hong Kong 8, Japan 2, Russia 2, Singapore 13)
registered in other countries:82 (Bahamas 13, India 1, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 6, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 11, Panama 12, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Singapore 27, Thailand 3, US 2, unknown 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Bintulu, Johor Bahru, George Town (Penang), Port Kelang (Port Klang), Tanjung Pelepas
container port(s) (TEUs):George Town (Penang)(1,202,180), Port Kelang (Port Klang)(9,435,403), Tanjung Pelepas (7,302,461)

Transportation - note
the International Maritime Bureau reports that the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea remain high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; in the past, commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift; increased naval patrols since 2005 in the Strait of Malacca resulted in no reported incidents in 2010


Military branches
Malaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia, ATM): Malaysian Army (Tentera Darat Malaysia), Royal Malaysian Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia, TLDM), Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia, TUDM) (2013)

Military service age and obligation
17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service (younger with parental consent and proof of age); mandatory retirement age 60; women serve in the Malaysian Armed Forces; no conscription (2013)

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:7,501,518
females age 16-49:7,315,999 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:6,247,306
females age 16-49:6,175,274 (2010 est.)

    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
female:254,812 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures
1.55% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 57
1.67% of GDP (2011)
1.55% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international
while the 2002 'Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea' has eased tensions over the Spratly Islands, it is not the legally binding 'code of conduct' sought by some parties; Malaysia was not party to the March 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; land and maritime negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo; per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait

    Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin):92,287 (Burma) (2013)
stateless persons:40,001 (2012); note - Malaysia's stateless population consists of Rohingya refugees from Burma, ethnic Indians, and the children of Filipino and Indonesian illegal migrants; Burma stripped the Rohingya of their nationality in 1982; Filipino and Indonesian children who have not have been registered for birth certificates by their parents or who received birth certificates stamped 'foreigner' are not eligible to go to government schools; these children are vulnerable to statelessness should they not be able to apply to their parents' country of origin for a passport

Trafficking in persons

Illicit drugs
drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously and carries severe penalties; heroin still primary drug of abuse, but synthetic drug demand remains strong; continued ecstasy and methamphetamine producer for domestic users and, to a lesser extent, the regional drug market
Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book

Doing Business in Malaysia 2020

Malaysia Ease of Doing Business Rank: 12 Overall Score: 81.5
Starting a Business (rank) 126
Score 83.3
Procedures - Men (number) 8
Time - Men (number) 17
Cost - Men (days) 11.1
Procedures - Women (days) 9
Time - Women (% of income per capita) 18
Cost - Women (% of income per capita) 11.1
Paid in minimum capital (% of income per capita) 0
Dealing with Construction Permits (rank) 2
Score 89.0
Procedures (number) 9
Time (days) 53
Cost (% of warehouse value) 1.3
Building Quality Control Index(0-15) 13
Quality of building regulations index (0-2) 2
Quality control before construction index (0-1) 1
Quality control during construction index (0-3) 2
Quality control after construction index (0-3) 3
Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2) 1
Professional certifications index (0-4) 4
Getting Electricity (rank) 4
Score 99.3
Procedures (number) 3
Time (days) 24
Cost (% of income per capita) 25.6
Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 8
Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3) 3
Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1) 1
Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1) 1
Regulatory monitoring (0-1) 1
Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1) 1
Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1) 1
System average interruption duration index (SAIDI) 0.5
System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) 0.5
Minimum outage time (in minutes) 1
Price of electricity (US cents per kWh) 12
Registering Property (rank) 33
Score 78.9
Procedures (number) 6
Time (days) 16.5
Cost (% of property value) 3.5
Quality of land administration index (0-30) 26.5
Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8) 7
Transparency of information index (0-6) 4.5
Geographic coverage index (0-8) 8
Land dispute resolution index (0-8) 7
Equal access to property rights index (-2-0) 0
Getting credit (rank) 37
Score 75
Strength of legal rights index (0-12) 7
Depth of credit information index (0-8) 8
Getting Credit total score 15
Credit registry coverage (% of adults) 64.9
Credit bureau coverage (% of adults) 89.1
Protecting Minority Investors (rank) 2
Score 88
Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 10
Extent of director liability index (0-10) 9
Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 8
Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) 5
Extent of ownership and control index (0-7) 6
Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) 6
Strength of minority investor protection index (0-50) 44
Paying Taxes (rank) 80
Score 76
Payments (number per year) 9
Time (hours per year) 174
Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit) 38.7
Profit tax (% of profit) 19.6
Labor tax and contributions (% of profit) 16.7
Other taxes (% of profit) 2.5
Time to comply with VAT refund (hours) No VAT
Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks) No VAT
Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours) 11
Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks) 26
Postfiling index (0-100) 51
Trading across borders (rank) 49
Score 88.5
Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours) 10
Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours) 7
Time to export: Border compliance (hours) 28
Time to import: Border compliance (hours) 36
Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD) 35
Cost to import: Documentary compliance 60
Cost to export: Border compliance (USD) 213
Cost to import: Border compliance (USD) 213
Enforcing contract (rank) 35
Score 68.2
Time (days) 425
Filing and service (days) 35
Trial and judgment (days) 270
Enforcement of judgment (days) 120
Cost (% of claim) 37.9
Attorney fees (% of claim) 30
Court fees (% of claim) 1.7
Enforcement fees (% of claim) 6.2
Quality of the judicial processes index (0-18) 13
Court structure and proceedings (0-5) 4
Case management (0-6) 4
Court automation (0-4) 2.5
Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) 2.5
Resolving Insolvency (rank) 40
Score 67
Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) 1
Time (years) 1
Cost (% of estate) 10
Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 81
Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16) 7.5
Commencement of proceedings index (0-3) 3
Management of debtor's assets index (0-6) 2
Reorganization proceedings index (0-3) 0.5
Creditor participation index (0-4) 2
Information provided by The World Bank Group