Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa

Geographic coordinates:
29 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references:

total:1,219,090 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 25
land:1,214,470 sq km
water:4,620 sq km
note:includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)

Area - comparative:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total:4,862 km
border countries:Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 967 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km

2,798 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
contiguous zone:24 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 nm or to edge of the continental margin

mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights

vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain

    Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point:Njesuthi 3,408 m

Natural resources:
gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

Land use:
arable land:9.87%
permanent crops:0.34%
other:89.79% (2011)

Irrigated land:
16,700 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources:
51.4 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
51.4 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
prolonged droughts

Environment - current issues:
lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to:Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland

People and Society

noun: South African(s)
adjective:South African

Ethnic groups:
black African 79.2%, white 8.9%, colored 8.9%, Indian/Asian 2.5%, other 0.5% (2011 est.)

IsiZulu (official) 22.7%, IsiXhosa (official) 16%, Afrikaans (official) 13.5%, English (official) 9.6%, Sepedi (official) 9.1%, Setswana (official) 8%, Sesotho (official) 7.6%, Xitsonga (official) 4.5%, siSwati (official) 2.5%, Tshivenda (official) 2.4%, isiNdebele (official) 2.1%, sign language 0.5%, other 1.6% (2011 est.)

Protestant 36.6% (Zionist Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal/Charismatic 8.2%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%), Catholic 7.1%, Muslim 1.5%, other Christian 36%, other 2.3%, unspecified 1.4%, none 15.1% (2001 census)

48,375,645country comparison to the world: 28
note:Statistics South Africa (the national statistical agency of South Africa) estimates the country's mid-year 2013 total population to be 52,981,991, which takes into account the findings of South Africa's 2011 census; estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years:28.3% (male 6,859,518/female 6,815,185)
15-24 years:20.2% (male 4,914,394/female 4,866,121)
25-54 years:38.2% (male 9,543,746/female 8,923,605)
55-64 years:7.1% (male 1,470,282/female 1,950,499)
65 years and over:6.1% (male 1,205,657/female 1,826,638) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:53.9 %
youth dependency ratio:45.2 %
elderly dependency ratio:8.7 %
potential support ratio:11.5 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total:25.7 years
male:25.4 years
female:26 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
-0.48% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 222

Birth rate:
18.94 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 93

Death rate:
17.49 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 1

Net migration rate:
-6.27 migrant(s)/1,000 populationcountry comparison to the world: 200
note:there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2014 est.)

urban population:62% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:1.21% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
Johannesburg 3.844 million; Cape Town (legislative capital) 3.562 million; Ekurhuleni (East Rand) 3.357 million; Durban 3.012 million; PRETORIA (capital) 1.501 million; Vereeniging 1.2 million; Bloemfontein (judicial capital) 468,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth:1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.67 male(s)/female
total population:0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

    Mother's mean age at first birth:

Maternal mortality rate:
300 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate:
total:41.61 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 51
male:45.25 deaths/1,000 live births
female:37.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population:49.56 yearscountry comparison to the world: 222
male:50.52 years
female:48.58 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.23 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 99

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
59.9% (2003/04)

Health expenditures:
8.5% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density:
0.76 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density:
2.8 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Drinking water source:
urban: 99.2% of population
rural: 88.3% of population
total: 95.1% of population
urban: 0.8% of population
rural: 11.7% of population
total: 4.9% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 81.7% of population
rural: 62.4% of population
total: 74.4% of population
urban: 18.3% of population
rural: 37.6% of population
total: 25.6% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
17.9% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 4

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
6,070,800 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
235,100 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 2

Major infectious diseases:

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
31.3% (2008)country comparison to the world: 24

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
8.7% (2008)country comparison to the world: 71

Education expenditures:
6% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 42

definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:93%
female:92.2% (2011 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:51.5%country comparison to the world: 6
female:56.9% (2012)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of South Africa
conventional short form:South Africa
former:Union of South Africa

Government type:

name:Pretoria (administrative capital); Cape Town (legislative capital); Bloemfontein (judicial capital)
geographic coordinates:25 42 S, 28 13 E
time difference:UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West, Western Cape

31 May 1910 (Union of South Africa formed from four British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State); 31 May 1961 (republic declared); 27 April 1994 (majority rule)

National holiday:
Freedom Day, 27 April (1994)

several previous; latest drafted 8 May 1996, approved 4 December 1997, effective 4 February 1997; amended many times, last in 2013 (2013)

Legal system:
mixed legal system of Roman-Dutch civil law, English common law, and customary law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state:President Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009); Deputy President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 26 May 2014) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government:President Jacob ZUMA (since 9 May 2009); Deputy President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet:Cabinet appointed by the president
elections:president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 May 2014 (next to be held on May 2019)
election results:Jacob ZUMA re-elected president unopposed; he was sworn in on 24 May 2014

Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consisting of the National Council of Provinces (90 seats; 10 members elected by each of the nine provincial legislatures for five-year terms; has special powers to protect regional interests, including the safeguarding of cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic minorities) and the National Assembly (400 seats; members elected by popular vote under a system of proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections:National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last held on 7 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2019)
election results:National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC 62.2%, DA 22.2%, EFF 6.4%, IFP 2.4%, NFP 1.6%, other 5.2%; seats by party - ANC 249, DA 89, EFF 25, IFP 10, NFP 6, other 21

Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court of Appeals (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 21 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices and 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office:Supreme Court of Appeals president and vice-president appointed by the national president after consultation with the Joint Services Commission (JSC), a 22-member body of judicial and other government officials, and a law academics; other Supreme Court judges appointed by the national president on the advice of the JSC and hold office until discharged from active service in terms of an Act of Parliament; Constitutional Court chief and deputy chief justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the JSC and with heads of the National Assembly; other Constitutional Court judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the chief justice and leaders of the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 12-year non-renewable terms or until age 70
subordinate courts:High Courts; Magistrates' Courts; labor courts; land claims courts;

    Political parties and leaders:
African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE]
African National Congress or ANC [Jacob ZUMA]
Congress of the People or COPE [Mosiuoa LEKOTA]
Democratic Alliance or DA [Helen ZILLE]
Economic Freedom Fighters or EFF [Julius MALEMA]
Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter MULDER]
Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI]
National Freedom Party or NFP [Zanele kaMAGWAZA-MSIBI]
Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania or PAC [Alton MPHETHI]
United Christian Democratic Party or UCDP [Isaac Sipho MFUNDISI]
United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Congress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Ebrahim RASOOL (since 4 August 2010)
chancery:3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:[1] (202) 232-4400
FAX:[1] (202) 265-1607
consulate(s) general:Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Patrick GASPARD (since 1 August 2013)
embassy:877 Pretorius Street, Arcadia, Pretoria
mailing address:P. O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone:[27] (12) 431-4000
FAX:[27] (12) 342-2299
consulate(s) general:Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg

Flag description:
two equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated by a central green band that splits into a horizontal Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side; the Y embraces a black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by narrow white stripes; the flag colors do not have any official symbolism, but the Y stands for the 'convergence of diverse elements within South African society, taking the road ahead in unity'; black, yellow, and green are found on the flag of the African National Congress, while red, white, and blue are the colors in the flags of the Netherlands and the UK, whose settlers ruled South Africa during the colonial era

National symbol(s):
springbok antelope

National anthem:
name:'National Anthem of South Africa'

lyrics/music:Enoch SONTONGA and Cornelius Jacob LANGENHOVEN/Enoch SONTONGA and Marthinus LOURENS de Villiers
note:adopted 1994; the anthem is a combination of 'N'kosi Sikelel' iAfrica' (God Bless Africa) and 'Die Stem van Suid Afrika' (The Call of South Africa), which were respectively the anthems of the non-white and white communities under apartheid; the official lyrics contain a mixture of Xhosa, Zulu, Sesotho, Afrikaans, and English (i.e., the five most widely spoken of South Africa's 11 official languages); the music incorporates the melody used in the Tanzanian and Zambian anthems


Economy - overview:
South Africa is a middle-income, emerging market with an abundant supply of natural resources; well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors and a stock exchange that is the 16th largest in the world. Even though the country's modern infrastructure supports a relatively efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region, unstable electricity supplies retard growth. The global financial crisis reduced commodity prices and world demand. GDP fell nearly 2% in 2009 but has recovered since then, albeit slowly with 2014 growth projected at about 2%. Unemployment, poverty, and inequality - among the highest in the world - remain a challenge. Official unemployment is at nearly 25% of the work force, and runs significantly higher among black youth. Eskom, the state-run power company, has built two new power stations and installed new power demand management programs to improve power grid reliability. Construction delays at two additional plants, however, mean South Africa is operating on a razor thin margin; economists judge that growth cannot exceed 3% until those plants come on line. South Africa's economic policy has focused on controlling inflation, however, the country has had significant budget deficits that restrict its ability to deal with pressing economic problems. The current government faces growing pressure from special interest groups to use state-owned enterprises to deliver basic services to low-income areas and to increase job growth.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$595.7 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$584 billion (2012 est.)
$569.5 billion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$353.9 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
2.5% (2012 est.)
3.5% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$11,500 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
$11,400 (2012 est.)
$11,300 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
15.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
13.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
16.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:63.8%
government consumption:24%
investment in fixed capital:22%
investment in inventories:-0.8%
exports of goods and services:30.6%
imports of goods and services:-39.6%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
services:68.4% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products

mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, commercial ship repair

Industrial production growth rate:
0.9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154

Labor force:
18.54 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Labor force - by occupation:
services:65% (2007 est.)

Unemployment rate:
24.9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
25.1% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
31.3% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:1.2%
highest 10%:51.7% (2009 est.)

    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
63.1 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 2
59.3 (1994)

revenues:$88.53 billion
expenditures:$105.5 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
25% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163

Public debt:
45.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
42.3% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
5.7% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
5% (31 December 2012)
country comparison to the world: 43
7% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
8.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
8.75% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$110.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
$122 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$198 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
$220.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$252.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$298.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.038 trillion (31 December 2012)

Current account balance:
-$23.78 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
-$24.07 billion (2012 est.)

$91.05 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
$93.48 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
gold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment

Exports - partners:
China 11.8%, US 8.3%, Japan 6%, Germany 5.7%, India 4.2% (2012)

$99.55 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
$102.6 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
China 14.4%, Germany 10.1%, Saudi Arabia 7.7%, US 7.4%, Japan 4.6%, India 4.5% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$48.46 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
$50.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:
$139 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
$130.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$143.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
$139 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$87.67 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
$82.82 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
rand (ZAR) per US dollar -
9.576 (2013 est.)
8.2031 (2012 est.)
7.3212 (2010 est.)
8.42 (2009)
7.9576 (2008)


Electricity - production:
257.9 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Electricity - consumption:
234.2 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Electricity - exports:
15.04 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Electricity - imports:
11.89 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
44.26 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
90.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
4.1% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
1.5% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.5% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85

Crude oil - production:
181,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177

Crude oil - imports:
385,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

    Crude oil - proved reserves:
15 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86

Refined petroleum products - production:
437,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
590,900 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29

Refined petroleum products - exports:
80,460 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Refined petroleum products - imports:
79,010 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

Natural gas - production:
1.28 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62

Natural gas - consumption:
4.01 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178

Natural gas - imports:
3.3 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41

Natural gas - proved reserves:
16 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
461.6 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
4.03 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 42

Telephones - mobile cellular:
68.4 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 19

Telephone system:
general assessment:the system is the best developed and most modern in Africa
domestic:combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 140 telephones per 100 persons; consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria
international:country code - 27; the SAT-3/WASC and SAFE fiber-optic submarine cable systems connect South Africa to Europe and Asia; the EASSy fiber-optic cable system connects with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean) (2011)

    Broadcast media:
the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) operates 4 TV stations, 3 are free-to-air and 1 is pay TV;, a private station, is accessible to more than half the population; multiple subscription TV services provide a mix of local and international channels; well developed mix of public and private radio stations at the national, regional, and local levels; the SABC radio network, state-owned and controlled but nominally independent, operates 18 stations, one for each of the 11 official languages, 4 community stations, and 3 commercial stations; more than 100 community-based stations extend coverage to rural areas (2007)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
4.761 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 23

Internet users:
4.42 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 54


566 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 11

Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m:11
2,438 to 3,047 m:7
1,524 to 2,437 m:52
914 to 1,523 m:65
under 914 m:9 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways
2,438 to 3,047 m:1
1,524 to 2,437 m:31
914 to 1,523 m:258
under 914 m:
132 (2013)

1 (2013)

condensate 94 km; gas 1,293 km; oil 992 km; refined products 1,460 km (2013)

total:20,192 kmcountry comparison to the world: 14
narrow gauge:19,756 km 1.065-m gauge (8,271 km electrified); 122 km 0.750-m gauge; 314 km 0.610-m gauge (2008)

total:364,131 kmcountry comparison to the world: 19
paved:62,995 km (includes 254 km of expressways)
unpaved:301,136 km (2002)

Merchant marine
total:3country comparison to the world: 134
by type:petroleum tanker 3
registered in other countries:19 (Australia 1, Isle of Man 2, Mexico 1, NZ 1, Seychelles 1, Singapore 13) (2010)

Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha Bay
container port(s) (TEUs):Durban (2,712,975)


Military branches
South African National Defense Force (SANDF): South African Army, South African Navy (SAN), South African Air Force (SAAF), South African Military Health Services (2013)

Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for voluntary military service; women are eligible to serve in noncombat roles; 2-year service obligation (2012)

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:13,439,781
females age 16-49:12,473,641 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:7,617,063
females age 16-49:6,476,264 (2010 est.)

    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
female:485,017 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures
1% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 101
1.16% of GDP (2012)
1.14% of GDP (2011)
1.16% of GDP (2010)

Military - note
with the end of apartheid and the establishment of majority rule, former military, black homelands forces, and ex-opposition forces were integrated into the South African National Defense Force (SANDF); as of 2003 the integration process was considered complete

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international
South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River

    Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin):20,814 (Somalia); 14,374 (Democratic Republic of Congo); 7,578 (Ethiopia) (2013)

Illicit drugs
transshipment center for heroin, hashish, and cocaine, as well as a major cultivator of marijuana in its own right; cocaine and heroin consumption on the rise; world's largest market for illicit methaqualone, usually imported illegally from India through various east African countries, but increasingly producing its own synthetic drugs for domestic consumption; attractive venue for money launderers given the increasing level of organized criminal and narcotics activity in the region and the size of the South African economy
Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book

Doing Business in South Africa 2020

South Africa Ease of Doing Business Rank: 84 Overall Score: 67
Starting a Business (rank) 139
Score 81.2
Procedures - Men (number) 7
Time - Men (number) 40
Cost - Men (days) 0.2
Procedures - Women (days) 7
Time - Women (% of income per capita) 40
Cost - Women (% of income per capita) 0.2
Paid in minimum capital (% of income per capita) 0
Dealing with Construction Permits (rank) 98
Score 68.3
Procedures (number) 20
Time (days) 155
Cost (% of warehouse value) 1.9
Building Quality Control Index(0-15) 12
Quality of building regulations index (0-2) 2
Quality control before construction index (0-1) 1
Quality control during construction index (0-3) 2
Quality control after construction index (0-3) 3
Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2) 0
Professional certifications index (0-4) 4
Getting Electricity (rank) 114
Score 68.8
Procedures (number) 5
Time (days) 109
Cost (% of income per capita) 158.4
Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 4
Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3) 0
Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1) 1
Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1) 1
Regulatory monitoring (0-1) 1
Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1) 0
Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1) 1
System average interruption duration index (SAIDI) 30.5
System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) 6
Minimum outage time (in minutes) 5
Price of electricity (US cents per kWh) 16.1
Registering Property (rank) 108
Score 59.5
Procedures (number) 7
Time (days) 23
Cost (% of property value) 8
Quality of land administration index (0-30) 15.5
Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8) 5
Transparency of information index (0-6) 4
Geographic coverage index (0-8) 2
Land dispute resolution index (0-8) 4.5
Equal access to property rights index (-2-0) 0
Getting credit (rank) 80
Score 60
Strength of legal rights index (0-12) 5
Depth of credit information index (0-8) 7
Getting Credit total score 12
Credit registry coverage (% of adults) 0
Credit bureau coverage (% of adults) 66.5
Protecting Minority Investors (rank) 13
Score 80
Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 8
Extent of director liability index (0-10) 8
Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 8
Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) 5
Extent of ownership and control index (0-7) 6
Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) 5
Strength of minority investor protection index (0-50) 40
Paying Taxes (rank) 54
Score 81.2
Payments (number per year) 7
Time (hours per year) 210
Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit) 29.2
Profit tax (% of profit) 21.8
Labor tax and contributions (% of profit) 4
Other taxes (% of profit) 3.4
Time to comply with VAT refund (hours) 9
Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks) 16
Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours) 11
Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks) 32
Postfiling index (0-100) 60.8
Trading across borders (rank) 145
Score 59.6
Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours) 68
Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours) 36
Time to export: Border compliance (hours) 92
Time to import: Border compliance (hours) 87
Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD) 55
Cost to import: Documentary compliance 73
Cost to export: Border compliance (USD) 1257
Cost to import: Border compliance (USD) 676
Enforcing contract (rank) 102
Score 56.9
Time (days) 600
Filing and service (days) 30
Trial and judgment (days) 490
Enforcement of judgment (days) 80
Cost (% of claim) 33.2
Attorney fees (% of claim) 22.6
Court fees (% of claim) 7.6
Enforcement fees (% of claim) 3
Quality of the judicial processes index (0-18) 8.5
Court structure and proceedings (0-5) 3.5
Case management (0-6) 2
Court automation (0-4) 0.5
Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) 2.5
Resolving Insolvency (rank) 68
Score 54.6
Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) 0
Time (years) 2
Cost (% of estate) 18
Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 34.7
Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16) 11.5
Commencement of proceedings index (0-3) 3
Management of debtor's assets index (0-6) 6
Reorganization proceedings index (0-3) 0.5
Creditor participation index (0-4) 2
Information provided by The World Bank Group