Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, as well as China, Laos, and Cambodia

Geographic coordinates:
16 10 N, 107 50 E

Map references:
Southeast Asia

total:331,210 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 66
land:310,070 sq km
water:21,140 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total:4,639 km
border countries:Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km

3,444 km (excludes islands)

Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
contiguous zone:24 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)

low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest

    Elevation extremes:
lowest point:South China Sea 0 m
highest point:Fan Si Pan 3,144 m

Natural resources:
phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land:19.64%
permanent crops:11.18%
other:69.18% (2011)

Irrigated land:
45,850 sq km (2005)

Total renewable water resources:
884.1 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
884.1 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta

Environment - current issues:
logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City

Environment - international agreements:
party to:Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point

People and Society

noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)

Ethnic groups:
Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, others 5.3% (1999 census)

Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

Buddhist 9.3%, Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, none 80.8% (1999 census)

93,421,835 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 15

Age structure:
0-14 years:24.3% (male 11,946,656/female 10,800,602)
15-24 years:17.8% (male 8,598,360/female 8,023,377)
25-54 years:44.8% (male 20,983,638/female 20,861,243)
55-64 years:7.4% (male 3,149,494/female 3,763,309)
65 years and over:5.6% (male 2,034,721/female 3,260,435) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:41.3 %
youth dependency ratio:31.9 %
elderly dependency ratio:9.4 %
potential support ratio:10.6 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total:29.2 years
male:28.1 years
female:30.2 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
1% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 119

Birth rate:
16.26 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 121

Death rate:
5.93 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 170

Net migration rate:
-0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 129

urban population:31% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:3.03% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
Ho Chi Minh City 6.405 million; HANOI (capital) 2.955 million; Haiphong 925,000; Da Nang 834,000 (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth:1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.11 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years:1 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.62 male(s)/female
total population:1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

Maternal mortality rate:
59 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate:
total:18.99 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 95
male:19.35 deaths/1,000 live births
female:18.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:72.91 yearscountry comparison to the world: 129
male:70.44 years
female:75.65 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.85 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 147

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
77.8% (2010/11)

Health expenditures:
6.8% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density:
1.22 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density:
2.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 93.6% of population
total: 95% of population
urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 6.4% of population
total: 5% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 66.6% of population
total: 75% of population
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 33.4% of population
total: 25% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 81

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
259,200 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 23

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
11,700 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 25

Major infectious diseases:

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
1.7% (2008)country comparison to the world: 186

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
12% (2011)country comparison to the world: 60

Education expenditures:
6.3% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 33

definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:93.4%
female:91.4% (2011 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:5.5%country comparison to the world: 135
female:6.5% (2012)


Country name:
conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form:Vietnam
local long form:Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form:Viet Nam

Government type:
Communist state

name:Hanoi (Ha Noi)
geographic coordinates:21 02 N, 105 51 E
time difference:UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
58 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thanh pho, singular and plural)

2 September 1945 (from France)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 2 September (1945)

several previous; latest adopted 15 April 1992, effective 1 January 1995; amended 2001, 2013 (2014)

Legal system:
civil law system; note - the civil code of 2005 reflects a European-style civil law

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state:President Truong Tan SANG (since 25 July 2011); Vice President Nguyen Thi DOAN (since 25 July 2007)
head of government:Prime Minister Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 27 June 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Vu Duc DAM (since 13 November 2013), Deputy Prime Minister Hoang Trung HAI (since 2 August 2007), Deputy Prime Minister Pham Binh MINH (since 13 November 2013), Deputy Prime Minister Vu Van NINH (since 3 August 2011), and Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan PHUC (since 3 August 2011)
cabinet:Cabinet appointed by president based on proposal of prime minister and confirmed by National Assembly
elections:president elected by the National Assembly from among its members for five-year term; last election held 25 July 2011 (next to be held in July 2016); prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister; appointment of prime minister and deputy prime ministers confirmed by National Assembly
election results:Truong Tan SANG elected president, percent of National Assembly vote - 97%; Nguyen Tan DUNG elected prime minister, percent of National Assembly vote - 94%

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Quoc Hoi (500 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections:last held on 22 May 2011 (next to be held in May 2016)
election results:percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPV 458, non-party CPV-approved 38, self-nominated 4; note - 500 candidates were elected; the 496 CPV and non-party CPV-approved delegates were members of the Vietnamese Fatherland Front and were vetted prior to the election

Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme People's Court (consists of the chief justice and 13 judges)
judge selection and term of office:chief justice elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president for a 5-year, renewable term; other judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms
subordinate courts:Court of Appeals; administrative, civil, criminal, economic, and labor courts; Central Military Court; People's Special Courts; note - the National Assembly can establish special tribunals

    Political parties and leaders:
Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Nguyen Phu TRONG]
note:other parties proscribed

Political pressure groups and leaders:
8406 Bloc

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Nguyen Quoc CUONG (since 2 May 2011)
chancery:1233 20th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:[1] (202) 861-0737
FAX:[1] (202) 861-0917
consulate(s) general:Houston, New York, San Francisco
consulate:New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador David B. SHEAR (since 4 August 2011)
embassy:Rose Garden Building, 170 Ngoc Khanh St., Hanoi
mailing address:7 Lang Ha Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi; 4550 Hanoi Place, Washington, DC 20521-4550
telephone:[84] (4) 3850-5000
FAX:[84] (4) 3850-5010
consulate(s) general:Ho Chi Minh City

Flag description:
red field with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center; red symbolizes revolution and blood, the five-pointed star represents the five elements of the populace - peasants, workers, intellectuals, traders, and soldiers - that unite to build socialism

National symbol(s):
yellow, five-pointed star on red field; lotus blossom

National anthem:
name:'Tien quan ca' (The Song of the Marching Troops)

lyrics/music:Nguyen Van CAO
note:adopted as the national anthem of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945; it became the national anthem of the unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976; although it consists of two verses, only the first is used as the official anthem


Economy - overview:
Vietnam is a densely-populated developing country that has been transitioning from the rigidities of a centrally-planned economy since 1986. Vietnamese authorities have reaffirmed their commitment to economic modernization in recent years. Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization in January 2007, which has promoted more competitive, export-driven industries. Vietnam became an official negotiating partner in the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement in 2010. Agriculture's share of economic output has continued to shrink from about 25% in 2000 to less than 20% in 2013, while industry's share increased from 36% to more than 42% in the same period. State-owned enterprises account for about 40% of GDP. Poverty has declined significantly, and Vietnam is working to create jobs to meet the challenge of a labor force that is growing by more than one million people every year. The global recession hurt Vietnam's export-oriented economy, with GDP in 2013 growing at 5%, the slowest rate of growth since 1999. In 2013, however, exports increased by more than 12%, year-on-year; several administrative actions brought the trade deficit back into balance. Between 2008 and 2011, Vietnam's managed currency, the dong, was devalued in excess of 20%, but its value remained relatively stable in 2013. Hanoi has oscillated between promoting growth and emphasizing macroeconomic stability in recent years. In February 2011, the government shifted from policies aimed at achieving a high rate of economic growth, which had stoked inflation, to those aimed at stabilizing the economy, through tighter monetary and fiscal control. Although Vietnam unveiled a broad, 'three pillar' economic reform program in early 2012, proposing the restructuring of public investment, state-owned enterprises, and the banking sector, little perceptible progress has been made. Vietnam's economy continues to face challenges from an undercapitalized banking sector. Non-performing loans weigh heavily on banks and businesses.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$358.9 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
$340.8 billion (2012 est.)
$323.8 billion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$170 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
5.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
5.2% (2012 est.)
6.2% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$4,000 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
$3,800 (2012 est.)
$3,700 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
38.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
39% of GDP (2012 est.)
32.8% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:68.9%
government consumption:6.8%
investment in fixed capital:30.4%
investment in inventories:3.1%
exports of goods and services:84.7%
imports of goods and services:-93.9%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
services:42.2% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; poultry; fish, seafood

food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones

Industrial production growth rate:
5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56

Labor force:
52.93 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Labor force - by occupation:
services:31% (2012)

Unemployment rate:
1.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
3.2% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
11.3% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:3.2%
highest 10%:30.2% (2008)

    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
37.6 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 78
36.1 (1998)

revenues:$42.82 billion
expenditures:$50 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
25.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153

Public debt:
48.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
48.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:official data; data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
9.1% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
9% (31 December 2012)
country comparison to the world: 11
15% (31 December 2011)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
13.47% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$43.99 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
$40.34 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$184.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
$165.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$173.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
$163.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$38.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Current account balance:
$8.162 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$9.062 billion (2012 est.)

$128.9 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
$114.6 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
clothes, shoes, electronics, seafood, crude oil, rice, coffee, wooden products, machinery

Exports - partners:
US 17.8%, Japan 11.8%, China 11.2%, South Korea 5%, Malaysia 4.1% (2012)

$121.4 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
$104.7 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and shoe industries, electronics, plastics, automobiles

Imports - partners:
China 25.8%, South Korea 13.9%, Japan 10.4%, Singapore 6%, Thailand 5.2%, US 4.3% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$32.49 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
$26.11 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:
$68.38 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
$63.95 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$84.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
$73.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA (31 December 2009 est.)
$5.3 billion (31 December 2008)

Exchange rates:
dong (VND) per US dollar -
21,118 (2013 est.)
20,859 (2012 est.)
18,612.92 (2010 est.)
17,799.6 (2009)
16,548.3 (2008)


Electricity - production:
117 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

Electricity - consumption:
104 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

Electricity - exports:
964 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60

Electricity - imports:
2.7 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
26.3 million kW (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
55% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
45% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99

Crude oil - production:
363,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Crude oil - exports:
188,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139

    Crude oil - proved reserves:
4.4 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

Refined petroleum products - production:
112,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
259,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47

Refined petroleum products - exports:
37,050 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64

Refined petroleum products - imports:
184,900 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

Natural gas - production:
9.3 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43

Natural gas - consumption:
10.2 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204

Natural gas - imports:
890 million cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58

Natural gas - proved reserves:
699.4 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
112.7 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
10.191 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 21

Telephones - mobile cellular:
134.066 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 8

Telephone system:
general assessment:Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system
domestic:all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly
international:country code - 84; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3, the C2C, and Thailand-Vietnam-Hong Kong submarine cable systems; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable system, completed in 2009, provided new access links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2011)

    Broadcast media:
government controls all broadcast media exercising oversight through the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC); government-controlled national TV provider, Vietnam Television (VTV), operates a network of 9 channels with several regional broadcasting centers; programming is relayed nationwide via a network of provincial and municipal TV stations; law limits access to satellite TV but many households are able to access foreign programming via home satellite equipment; government-controlled Voice of Vietnam, the national radio broadcaster, broadcasts on 6 channels and is repeated on AM, FM, and shortwave stations throughout Vietnam (2008)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
189,553 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 74

Internet users:
23.382 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 17


45 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 96

Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m:10
2,438 to 3,047 m:6
1,524 to 2,437 m:13
914 to 1,523 m:9 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways
1,524 to 2,437 m:1
914 to 1,523 m:3
under 914 m:
3 (2013)

1 (2013)

condensate 72 km; condensate/gas 398 km; gas 955 km; oil 128 km; oil/gas/water 33 km; refined products 206 km; water 13 km (2013)

total:2,632 kmcountry comparison to the world: 63
standard gauge:527 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge:2,105 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

total:206,633 kmcountry comparison to the world: 24
paved:148,338 km
unpaved:47,130 km (2013)

47,130 km (30,831 km weight under 50 tons) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 4

Merchant marine
total:579country comparison to the world: 20
by type:barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 142, cargo 335, chemical tanker 23, container 19, liquefied gas 7, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 48, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1
registered in other countries:86 (Cambodia 1, Kiribati 2, Mongolia 33, Panama 43, Taiwan 1, Tuvalu 6) (2010)

Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Cam Pha Port, Da Nang, Haiphong, Phu My, Quy Nhon
river port(s):Ho Chi Minh (Mekong)
container port(s) (TEUs):Haiphong (1,018,794), Saigon New Port (3,071,777)

Transportation - note
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift


Military branches
People's Armed Forces: People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; includes Vietnam People's Navy (with Naval Infantry), Vietnam People's Air and Air Defense Force, Border Defense Command, Coast Guard) (2013)

Military service age and obligation
18-25 years of age for male compulsory and voluntary military service; females may volunteer for active duty military service; conscription typically takes place twice annually and service obligation is 18 months (Army, Air Defense), 2 years (Navy and Air Force); 18-45 years of age (male) or 18-40 years of age (female) for Militia Force or Self Defense Force service; males may enroll in military schools at age 17 (2013)

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:25,649,738
females age 16-49:24,995,692 (2010 est.)

    Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:20,405,847
females age 16-49:21,098,102 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
female:787,341 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures
2.37% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 33
2.17% of GDP (2011)
2.37% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international
southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China; establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over the sovereignty of offshore islands; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; China occupies the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending beyond as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef; the 2002 'Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea' has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding 'code of conduct' desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Economic Exclusion Zone negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary

    Refugees and internally displaced persons
stateless persons:11,500 (2012); note - Vietnam's stateless ethnic Chinese Cambodian population dates to the 1970s when thousands of Cambodians fled to Vietnam to escape the Khmer Rouge and were no longer recognized as Cambodian citizens; Vietnamese women who gave up their citizenship to marry foreign men have found themselves stateless after divorcing and returning home to Vietnam; the government addressed this problem in 2009, and Vietnamese women are beginning to reclaim their citizenship

Illicit drugs
minor producer of opium poppy; probable minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin; government continues to face domestic opium/heroin/methamphetamine addiction problems despite longstanding crackdowns
Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book

Doing Business in Vietnam 2020

Vietnam Ease of Doing Business Rank: 70 Overall Score: 69.8
Starting a Business (rank) 115
Score 85.1
Procedures - Men (number) 8
Time - Men (number) 16
Cost - Men (days) 5.6
Procedures - Women (days) 8
Time - Women (% of income per capita) 16
Cost - Women (% of income per capita) 5.6
Paid in minimum capital (% of income per capita) 0
Dealing with Construction Permits (rank) 25
Score 79.3
Procedures (number) 10
Time (days) 166
Cost (% of warehouse value) 0.5
Building Quality Control Index(0-15) 12
Quality of building regulations index (0-2) 2
Quality control before construction index (0-1) 1
Quality control during construction index (0-3) 2
Quality control after construction index (0-3) 3
Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2) 0
Professional certifications index (0-4) 4
Getting Electricity (rank) 27
Score 88.2
Procedures (number) 4
Time (days) 31
Cost (% of income per capita) 994.2
Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 7
Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3) 2
Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1) 1
Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1) 1
Regulatory monitoring (0-1) 1
Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1) 1
Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1) 1
System average interruption duration index (SAIDI) 2.1
System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) 1.6
Minimum outage time (in minutes) 5
Price of electricity (US cents per kWh) 12.5
Registering Property (rank) 64
Score 71.1
Procedures (number) 5
Time (days) 53.5
Cost (% of property value) 0.6
Quality of land administration index (0-30) 14
Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8) 6
Transparency of information index (0-6) 3
Geographic coverage index (0-8) 0
Land dispute resolution index (0-8) 5
Equal access to property rights index (-2-0) 0
Getting credit (rank) 25
Score 80
Strength of legal rights index (0-12) 8
Depth of credit information index (0-8) 8
Getting Credit total score 16
Credit registry coverage (% of adults) 59.4
Credit bureau coverage (% of adults) 20.6
Protecting Minority Investors (rank) 97
Score 54
Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 7
Extent of director liability index (0-10) 4
Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 2
Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) 4
Extent of ownership and control index (0-7) 5
Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) 5
Strength of minority investor protection index (0-50) 27
Paying Taxes (rank) 109
Score 69
Payments (number per year) 6
Time (hours per year) 384
Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit) 37.6
Profit tax (% of profit) 13.2
Labor tax and contributions (% of profit) 24.3
Other taxes (% of profit) 0.1
Time to comply with VAT refund (hours) No VAT refund
Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks) No VAT refund
Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours) 4
Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks) 0
Postfiling index (0-100) 49.1
Trading across borders (rank) 104
Score 70.8
Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours) 50
Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours) 76
Time to export: Border compliance (hours) 55
Time to import: Border compliance (hours) 56
Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD) 139
Cost to import: Documentary compliance 183
Cost to export: Border compliance (USD) 290
Cost to import: Border compliance (USD) 373
Enforcing contract (rank) 68
Score 62.1
Time (days) 400
Filing and service (days) 50
Trial and judgment (days) 200
Enforcement of judgment (days) 150
Cost (% of claim) 29
Attorney fees (% of claim) 21
Court fees (% of claim) 5
Enforcement fees (% of claim) 3
Quality of the judicial processes index (0-18) 7.5
Court structure and proceedings (0-5) 3
Case management (0-6) 1
Court automation (0-4) 1
Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) 2.5
Resolving Insolvency (rank) 122
Score 38
Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) 0
Time (years) 5
Cost (% of estate) 14.5
Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 21.3
Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16) 8.5
Commencement of proceedings index (0-3) 2.5
Management of debtor's assets index (0-6) 3
Reorganization proceedings index (0-3) 2
Creditor participation index (0-4) 1
Information provided by The World Bank Group