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Lowenstein Sandler LLP

Timothy J. Nichols

Timothy J. Nichols

Associate

Expertise

  • Corporate

WSG Practice Industries

Activity

Lowenstein Sandler LLP
New Jersey, U.S.A.

Profile

Timothy (“TJ”) is a member of the firm’s Corporate practice. He assists on matters across the business spectrum, from formation and financing to acquisitions and exit transactions, in addition to ongoing compliance.

During law school, he gained experience as a summer associate at Lowenstein and as a Corporate Summer Fellow at the Panasonic Corporation of North America, where he analyzed labor and employment law compliance issues and drafted documents like a mutual non-disclosure and material transfer agreement for a new partnership.

He also served as an intern with the Honorable Mark Falk, United States District Court for the District of New Jersey.

TJ was salutatorian of his law school’s graduating class. He is proficient in Arabic.

Bar Admissions

    New Jersey

Education

Seton Hall University School of Law (J.D. 2019); senior articles editor, Seton Hall Law Review Vol. 49; Distinguished Scholar Scholarship; Excellence Awards in Contracts and Civil Procedure II
University of Michigan (B.A. 2016), with highest distinction; Phi Beta Kappa
Articles

Ginnie Mae Pass-Through Assistance Program All Participants Memorandum
Lowenstein Sandler LLP, April 2020

On April 10, Ginnie Mae issued a new All Participants Memorandum (APM) officially implementing its Pass-Through Assistance Program (PTAP/C19) for issuers under Ginnie Mae’s Single-Family program for which the COVID-19 national emergency has caused liquidity concerns. The PTAP/C19 is not available to issuers under Ginnie Mae’s multifamily or reverse mortgage programs...

New Jersey Amends Law To Permit Remote Member Meetings For Nonprofit Corporations
Lowenstein Sandler LLP, April 2020

What You Need To Know: New Jersey nonprofit corporations are permitted to hold member meetings by remote participation (solely by remote communication during a state of emergency declared by the Governor). A board of trustees must approve remote participation and the guidelines and procedures to govern a meeting. Governance document requirements and New Jersey Nonprofit Corporation Act provisions still apply...

TALF 2020 Update
Lowenstein Sandler LLP, April 2020

On April 9, 2020, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (the Federal Reserve) announced updates to the 2020 Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (TALF). The updates include expanding the eligible underlying asset classes to include both newly originated collateralized loan obligations issued on or after March 23, 2020, and legacy commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS) issued prior to March 23, 2020...

Additional Articles

On March 27, 2020, President Trump signed into law the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act (the “Act”), and the President signed it into law. This alert summarizes key structured finance and secondary market loan trading provisions of the Act. 

Single Family Residential Mortgage Loans

  • Between February 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, a mortgage borrower with a federally backed mortgage loan related to a 1-4 family residence who has suffered a financial hardship directly or indirectly caused by the COVID-19 emergency may, regardless of delinquency status, request a forbearance of their principal and interest mortgage payment by directly requesting such forbearance from their mortgage servicer.
  • For purposes of such forbearance requests, a “federally backed mortgage loan” is any mortgage loan (i) guaranteed by the FHA, (ii) insured under Section 255 of the National Housing Act, (iii) guaranteed under section 184 or 184A of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992, (iv) made by the Dept. of Agriculture, (v) guaranteed or insured by the Dept. of Agriculture or the Dept. of Veterans Affairs, or (vi) purchased or securitized by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation or the Federal National Mortgage Association.
  • Such forbearance shall be granted for up to 180 days, and the forbearance period may be extended an additional 180 days at the borrower’s request.
  • During the forbearance period no fees, penalties, or interest shall accrue beyond the amounts scheduled or calculated as if the borrower made all contractual payments on time.
  • The servicer shall require no documentation beyond the borrower’s attestation that they have suffered a financial hardship directly or indirectly caused by the COVID-19 emergency. 
  • At the request of the borrower, either the initial or extended forbearance period may be shortened.
  • During the 60-day period beginning on March 18, 2020, no servicer of a federally backed mortgage loan may initiate any judicial or nonjudicial foreclosure process, move for a foreclosure judgment or order of sale, or execute a foreclosure-related eviction or foreclosure sale.

Multifamily Residential Mortgage Loans

  • Until the earlier of December 31, 2020 or the termination date of the national emergency related to the COVID-19 outbreak (the “Covered Period”), any borrower with a federally backed mortgage loan related to a multifamily (5 or more families) residence who (i) was current on their mortgage loan as of February 1, 2020, and (ii) affirms to their mortgage servicer that they have suffered a financial hardship directly or indirectly caused by the COVID-19 emergency may request a forbearance of their principal and interest mortgage payment by making an oral or written request for such forbearance from their mortgage servicer.
  • For purposes of such forbearance requests, a “federally backed mortgage loan” is any mortgage loan that (i) is made in whole or in part, or insured, guaranteed, supplemented, or assisted in any way, by any federal agency, (ii) is made under or in connection with a housing or urban development program administered by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or a federal agency, or (iii) is purchased or securitized by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation or the Federal National Mortgage Association.
  • The mortgage servicer shall document the hardship and forbearance shall be granted for up to 30 days, and the forbearance period may be extended for two additional 30-day periods at the borrowers request, provided such request is made (i) prior to the end of the Covered Period and (ii) 15 days prior to the end of the current forbearance period.
  • At the request of the borrower, the forbearance period may be discontinued.
  • During the 60-day period beginning on March 18, 2020, no servicer of a federally backed mortgage loan may initiate any judicial or nonjudicial foreclosure process, move for a foreclosure judgment or order of sale, or execute a foreclosure-related eviction or foreclosure sale.
  • Any multifamily borrower that receives a forbearance may not (i) evict a tenant solely for nonpayment, (ii) charge any late fees, charges, or penalties to any nonpaying tenant, (iii) provide any tenant with a notice to vacate, or (iv) require a tenant to vacate before the date that is 30 days after the date such notice was provided.

Business Loans

  • The Act creates a new type of U.S. Small Business Administration (“SBA”) loan program called the “Paycheck Protection Program.” General information regarding the Paycheck Protection Program can be found here.
  • Loans made under the Paycheck Protection Program (“covered loans”) are eligible to be sold in the secondary market consistent with rule under the current SBA Section 7(a) program.
  • Repayment of a covered loan is subject to deferral for a minimum of six months and a maximum of one year.
  • Until June 30, 2020, if a covered loan is sold on the secondary market and an investor declines to approval a permitted deferral request of a lender, the Administrator of the SBA shall purchase the covered loan so that the impacted borrower may receive such deferral.

Student Loans

  • All federal students loan payments shall be suspended through September 30, 2020, and all interest accruing thereon for such period shall be waived.
  • A “federal student loan” is a student loan made under the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program and the Federal Family Education Loan Program.
  • All suspended payments shall be treated as paid for purposes of credit reporting agency reporting.
  • For the purpose of any federal public service loan forgiveness or loan rehabilitation program, all suspended payments shall be treated as if the payment was made.
  • Servicers of federal student loans shall suspend all involuntary collection payments, including wage garnishment, reduction of tax refund, and reduction of social security benefits, through September 30, 2020.
  • For a summary of responses by private lenders and the states to the COVID-19 emergency with respect to student loans, see here.

Consumer Credit Reporting

  • If a servicer makes a payment accommodation with respect to a current credit obligation or account of a consumer that has not been charged-off and the consumer honors the terms of the accommodation (including, if applicable, by not making payment where no payment is due), the servicer shall report the credit obligation or account as current.
  • If a servicer makes a payment accommodation with respect to a noncurrent credit obligation or account of a consumer that has not been charged-off and the consumer honors the terms of the payment accommodation, for as long as the payment accommodation is in effect, the servicer shall report the credit obligation or account as maintaining the delinquency status in effect before the payment accommodation was made.
  • If a servicer makes a payment accommodation with respect to a noncurrent credit obligation or account of a consumer that has not been charged-off and the consumer brings the credit obligation or account current while the payment accommodation is in effect, the servicer shall report the credit obligation or account as current.
  • For purposes of consumer credit reporting, a “payment accommodation” includes an agreement to defer one or more payments, make a partial payment, forbear any delinquent amounts, modify a loan or contract, or any other assistance or relief granted to a consumer who is affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic during the covered period.
  • For purposes of credit reporting, the “covered period” shall mean the period from January 31, 2020, until the later of 120 days from the date of enactment of the Act or 120 days after the termination of the COVID-19 national emergency.

Relief from Troubled Debt Restructurings

  • During the period from March 1, 2020, until the earlier of the December 31, 2020, and 60 days after the termination of the COVID-19 national emergency (the “applicable period”), financial institutions may elect to suspend (x) U.S. GAAP requirements for loan modifications related to the COVID-19 pandemic that would otherwise be categorized as troubled debt restructurings and (y) the determination that loan modifications caused by COVID-19 pandemic effects are troubled debt restructurings.
  • Any suspension will be applicable for the term of the loan modification, but only for modifications occurring during the applicable period and for loans that were not more than 30 days delinquent as of December 31, 2019. Modifications may include forbearance arrangements, interest rate modifications, repayment plans, and other similar principal or interest payment deferrals or delays.
  • The appropriate federal banking agency (as that term is defined in § 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and including the National Credit Union Administration) of each financial institution will defer to the financial institution’s decision to make a suspension of the relevant U.S. GAAP requirements and/or troubled debt restructuring determinations.
  • If financial institutions elect to make the suspensions discussed above for modified loans, the financial institutions should maintain records regarding the amount of loans involved and the appropriate federal banking agencies are permitted to collect data on such loans for supervision.

Relief from CECL Standards

  • Banks and savings associations whose deposits are insured by Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, credit unions, bank holding companies, and any of their affiliates are not required to comply with the Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13 (“Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments”).
  • The primary applicable standard is the current expected credit losses (“CECL”) methodology used for estimating credit losses allowances.
  • The suspension of this requirement will end on the earlier of December 31, 2020, and the termination of the COVID-19 national emergency.

Relief under the Act has been considered ‘Phase III’ of the federal government intervention into the secondary market. Phase III may not be the final intervention.

To see our other material related to the pandemic, please visit the Coronavirus/COVID-19: Facts, Insights & Resources page of our website by clicking here. 

The economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has proven substantial, especially for the mortgage finance industry. Leaders across the state and federal level have implemented foreclosure moratorium policies to alleviate the financial hardships borrowers now face.  Measures designed to assist borrowers, however, have left mortgage servicers facing a swath of potential consequences. In an effort to aid issuers and lenders as well, Ginnie Mae has begun the process of implementing new assistance programs and revised some of its existing policies.  Below is a more fulsome discussion of Ginnie Mae’s actions thus far.

Pass-Through Assistance Program

On March 27, 2020, Ginnie Mae announced it fully anticipated implementing a Pass-Through Assistance Program (PTAP) within the next two weeks. Through the PTAP, issuers with shortfalls with respect to principal and interest payments may request that Ginnie Mae advance the difference between available funds and the scheduled payment to investors. Ginnie Mae will be implementing the PTAP for single-family issuers initially and expects PTAP terms for reverse mortgage and multifamily issuers to be published shortly thereafter. The PTAP will be effective immediately upon the publication of an All Participants Memorandum (APM), and corresponding changes to Ginnie Mae’s MBS Guide will be made in due course. 

Ginnie Mae stressed, however, that the PTAP should be a “last resort” financing option for any Ginnie Mae issuers facing liquidity shortages. The PTAP’s purpose will be to support the forbearance and loss mitigation programs of Ginnie Mae’s issuing agency partners (the Federal Housing Administration, the Veterans Administration, and the United States Department of Agriculture) by minimizing potential disruptions in the mortgage servicing market. The desired result is that, through the PTAP, those federal mortgage insurance and guarantee programs can be administered efficiently and with maximum help to borrowers. Therefore, Ginnie Mae stated that it will only make advances through the PTAP where doing so furthers the intended purpose.

Electronic Signatures

In an APM published on March 25, 2020, Ginnie Mae is temporarily allowing for the electronic execution and transmission of form HUD 11711A (Release of Security Interest) and form HUD 11711B (Certification and Agreement). Ginnie Mae will approve interim lenders and issuers to execute forms HUD 11711A and HUD 11711B using electronic signatures, but signatures must, in all cases, be performed, affixed, or reflected as to allow a person reading the form to identify the name, title, and business name of the signatory. Any forms HUD 11711A and HUD 11711B signed electronically may be transmitted electronically between interim lenders, issuers, and document custodians, provided that the forms are maintained in PDF format and document custodians are able to reproduce a printed copy of those PDF files to be included in the relevant physical pool file, or upon Ginnie Mae’s request. Once the COVID-19 crisis has been mitigated, or Ginnie Mae directs otherwise, issuers will be responsible for delivering forms HUD 11711A and HUD 11711B, bearing wet signatures, to document custodians for completion of final certification.

Annual Audited Financial Statement Deadline Extension

Additionally, in a separate APM published on March 25, 2020, Ginnie Mae extended the due date for Annual Audited Financial Statements to April 30, 2020, for those lenders with a December fiscal year end. Ginnie Mae noted that if lenders can complete the Annual Audited Financial Statements within 90 days of fiscal year end, they are encouraged to do so.

The measures discussed above will not be the extent of Ginnie Mae’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the pandemic’s effects on the mortgage finance industry. Ginnie Mae stated that it is expediting its digital collateral initiative and, “in the near future,” expects to publish information about forbearance of sanctions for violations of liquidity and delinquency standards attributable to the COVID-19 crisis. Groups in the mortgage finance industry are calling for additional measures, however, because Ginnie Mae’s plans do not address advances associated with loans backing Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, or private-label securities, nor will it address advances of taxes and insurance on loans backing Ginnie Mae securities. A more thorough discussion of these concerns can be found here. As Ginnie Mae continues to issue new guidance, we will update this page accordingly.

View our April 17th update to this guidance here.

To see our other material related to the pandemic, please visit the Coronavirus/COVID-19: Facts, Insights & Resources page of our website by clicking here. 

On April 1, 2020, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) issued a Mortgagee Letter informing mortgagees of special Loss Mitigation Home Retention Options available to single family borrowers, as well as an extension period for Home Equity Conversion Mortgages (HECM), affected by the COVID-19 Presidentially Declared National Emergency in accordance with the CARES Act. Below is a summary of the key provisions.

General Guidance

  • The policy changes below will be incorporated into Handbook 4000.1, Section III.A.3.d.
  • The sections Forbearance for Borrowers Affected by the COVID-19 National Emergency and Extension Period for Home Equity Conversion Mortgages Affected by the COVID-19 National Emergency and the exclusion of the COVID-19 National Emergency from FHA’s PDMDA guidance in Handbook 4000.1 are effective immediately, while mortgagees must implement all other procedures set forth in the Mortgagee Letter by April 30, 2020, although mortgagees may begin using the new procedures immediately.
  • The guidance applies to all FHA Title II Single-Family mortgage programs.

Loss Mitigation for Borrowers Affected by the COVID-19 National Emergency

  • A mortgagee cannot deny COVID-19 National Emergency Home Retention Options to borrowers experiencing adverse impacts on their ability to make mortgage payments on time because of the COVID-19 National Emergency (National Emergency) that satisfy the loss mitigation criteria set forth in Section III.A.3.d.

Forbearance for Borrowers Affected by the COVID-19 National Emergency

  • A mortgagee must offer a borrower a forbearance allowing for one or more periods of reduced or suspended payments, without specific terms of repayment, if a borrower is experiencing financial hardship negatively impacting their ability to make on-time mortgage payments because of the National Emergency.
  • Mortgagees may use any available methods for communicating with borrowers regarding a forbearance to meet these requirements, including email, text, fax, teleconference, website or sending out general communications advising borrowers that forbearance is granted, provided borrowers email a request or call their servicer.
  • The initial forbearance period may last up to six months, and the borrower may request the mortgagee approve an additional forbearance period of up to six months.
  • At the borrower’s request, the term of either the initial or the extended forbearance period may be shortened.
  • If the borrower is on a forbearance plan, the mortgagee must waive all late charges, fees, and penalties, if any.

COVID-19 National Emergency Standalone Partial Claim

  • If an owner-occupant borrower receives a Forbearance for Borrowers Affected by the COVID-19 National Emergency, no later than the end of the forbearance period(s) the mortgagee must evaluate the borrower for the COVID-19 National Emergency Standalone Partial Claim (Standalone Partial Claim).
  • The mortgagee must ensure the following eligibility requirements are met:
    1. The mortgage was current or fewer than 30 days delinquent as of March 1, 2020.
    2. The borrower indicates they have the ability to resume making on-time mortgage payments.
    3. The property is owner-occupied.
  • Under the terms of the Standalone Partial Claim, the mortgagee must ensure that:
    1. The borrower’s accumulated late fees are waived;
    2. Only arrearages, consisting of principal, interest, taxes, and insurance, are included in the Standalone Partial Claim amount;
    3. The Standalone Partial Claim amount does not exceed the maximum statutory value of all partial claims for an FHA-insured mortgage, as listed in Section III.A.2.k.v.(D)(2)(a) (Statutory Maximum for Partial Claims); and
    4. The borrower receives only one Standalone Partial Claim.
  • The mortgagee must submit all documentation for partial claims required under Section III.A.2.k.v(J)(6) (Delivery of Partial Claim Documents).
  • The mortgagee is automatically granted a 90-day extension to the six-month deadline for delivering the required documentation related to the recorded mortgage.
  • If a mortgagee experiences additional delays out of their control impacting the delivery of the partial claim documents related to the recorded mortgage within the six-month deadline plus the automatic 90-day extension, the mortgagee may file requests for an additional extension in accordance with Section III.A.2.k.v(J)(7) (Extensions of Time for Delivery of Partial Claim Documents).

Single Family Default Monitoring Systems (SFDMS) Reporting Requirements for Borrowers Affected by the COVID-19 National Emergency in Loss Mitigation

  • Servicers must report the Default/Delinquency Reason Codes that apply to a borrower at the end of each reporting cycle and must update the code as the borrower’s circumstances change.

Required Financial Evaluation for Other Loss Mitigation Home Retention Options

  • A mortgagee must evaluate any borrower not brought current through a Standalone Partial Claim Option for other Loss Mitigation Home Retention Options (§ III.A.2.k) and Home Disposition Options (§ III.A.2.l).
  • If a borrower is delinquent because of a forbearance received following a COVID-19 National Emergency Declaration, the borrower is deemed to satisfy the eligibility requirements for FHA Loss Mitigation Home Retention and Home Disposition Options.

Terms of the Mortgage Are Unaffected

  • Nothing in the Mortgagee Letter confers to a borrower any right to any loss mitigation or other action by HUD or a mortgagee.
  • A mortgagee may still enforce its private contractual rights under the terms of the mortgage, and the Mortgagee Letter does not affect any private contractual rights and obligations.
  • If a mortgagee chooses to enforce its contractual rights after the expiration of a forbearance due to the National Emergency, the standard time frames to initiate foreclosure and reasonable diligence in prosecuting foreclosure following expiration of a foreclosure moratorium will apply.

Reporting to Consumer Reporting Agencies of Borrowers Impacted by COVID-19 National Emergency

  • A borrower who is granted a Forbearance for Borrowers Affected by the COVID-19 National Emergency and is otherwise performing as agreed is not considered delinquent for purposes of credit reporting.
  • While the FHA requires servicers to comply with the credit reporting requirements of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), the FHA encourages servicers to consider the impacts of the National Emergency on borrowers’ financial situations and any flexibilities a servicer may have under the FCRA when taking any negative credit reporting actions.

Exclusion of COVID-19 from FHA’s Presidentially Declared Major Disaster Areas (PDMDA) (III.A.3.c) Guidance in Handbook 4000.1

  • For borrowers impacted by the National Emergency whose mortgaged property is located in a COVID-19 PDMDA, the policy in the Mortgagee Letter applies in lieu of FHA’s PDMDA guidance listed in Presidentially Declared Major Disaster Areas (§ III.A.3.c), for the purposes of this National Emergency only.
  • If mortgagees have begun using FHA’s PDMDA Loss Mitigation Options (§ III.A.3.c), they must convert to the COVID-19 National Emergency Loss Mitigation Options listed in the Mortgagee Letter.

Extension Period for Home Equity Conversion Mortgages Affected by the COVID-19 National Emergency

  • Pursuant to the National Emergency, the mortgagee must delay submitting a request to call a loan due and payable upon request of a borrower.
  • The initial extension period may last up to six months, and if needed, HUD may approve an additional period of up to six months.
  • At the borrower’s request, the term of either the initial or the extended extension period may be shortened.
  • A mortgagee must waive all late charges, fees, and penalties, if any, as long as the borrower is in an extension period.
  • For loans that have become automatically due and payable, entered into a deferral period, or became due and payable with HUD approval, the mortgagee may also take an automatic extension for any deadline relating to foreclosure and claim submission for a period of up to six months. If needed, HUD may approve an additional period of up to six months.

To see our other material related to the pandemic, please visit the Coronavirus/COVID-19: Facts, Insights & Resources page of our website by clicking here. 

On April 4, 2020, the Mortgage Bankers Association (MBA) and the following mortgage industry trade groups released a statement calling on the Federal Housing Finance Agency, the Federal Reserve,and the Department of the Treasury to provide a source of liquidity to mortgage servicers dealing with increased advancing obligations as a result of homeowners and renters missing payments and/or requesting forbearances due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • Independent Community Bankers of America
  • Leading Builders of America
  • Local Initiatives Support Corporation
  • Mortgage Bankers Association
  • National Apartment Association
  • National Association of Affordable Housing Lenders
  • National Association of Home Builders
  • National Association of Realtors
  • National Council of State Housing Agencies
  • National Housing Conference
  • National Multifamily Housing Council
  • The Real Estate Roundtable
  • Structured Finance Association
  • Up for Growth Action
  • S. Mortgage Insurers

The statement echoed the message of the March 22, 2020, MBA Letter sent to regulators by the MBA and seven industry trade groups prior to the passage of the CARES Act, in which the groups expressed support for mortgage forbearance and stressed the need for the creation of a servicer liquidity facility in connection with a forbearance plan. For a discussion of the March 22, 2020, Letter, see here.

The April 4, 2020, statement praised the forbearance provisions of the CARES Act as “appropriate” but stressed that the scale of it could not have been foreseen by the mortgage servicers who, in many instances, will be required to advance the missed payments to the investors in the mortgage-backed securities that own the applicable mortgage loans. For a discussion on the expected consequences of the CARES Act forbearance plan on mortgage servicers, see here. It stressed that, without support, the mortgage servicers will not be able to fund the advances required as a result of the forbearance plans, which will lead to widespread default by mortgage servicers and dire consequences for the mortgage finance industry and the economy generally. Ginnie Mae has announced plans for a liquidity facility to support mortgage forbearance (also see this link). However, this plan will not address advances associated with loans backing Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, or private-label securities, nor will it address advances of taxes and insurance on loans backing Ginnie Mae securities. The April 4, 2020, statement called a liquidity facility for servicers that will support these types of advances the “missing piece of the puzzle.” The statement warns that if action is not taken by regulators imminently, it will lead to volatility in the market and destabilize the mortgage finance Industry.

For our summary of the forbearance provisions of the CARES Act and the CARES Act generally, see here.

  • On April 1, 2020, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) issued a Mortgagee Letter informing mortgagees of special Loss Mitigation Home Retention Options available to single-family borrowers, as well as an extension period for Home Equity Conversion Mortgages (HECM), affected by the COVID-19 Presidentially Declared National Emergency in accordance with the CARES Act. For a detailed description of the Mortgagee Letter, see here.
  • On April 8, 2020, a group of bipartisan senators sent a letter to Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin addressing concerns about liquidity in the housing market and calling for federal action addressing the liquidity challenges currently facing mortgage servicers in order to avoid the impending crisis facing the mortgage finance industry. The letter was led by Senator Mark Warner (D-VA), and Senators Mike Rounds (R-SD), Bob Menendez (D-NJ), Thom Tillis (R-NC), Tim Kaine (D-VA), Tim Scott (R-SC), and Jerry Moran (R-KS) also signed the letter.

To see our other material related to the pandemic, please visit the Coronavirus/COVID-19: Facts, Insights & Resources page of our website by clicking here.


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