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Shepherd and Wedderburn LLP | February 2008

Investors in Scottish commercial property have been warned that the sector may see a zero per cent rate of growth in 2008 as supply continues to outstrip demand.In comparison to the situation just 12 months ago, where there were ten buyers for every commercial property put on the market, now ten sellers exist for every purchaser, new research from industry consultants Drivers Jonas has revealed ...

Legal system1. What is the legal system (civil law, common law or a mixture of both)?Romania has a civil law system.Foreign investment2. Are there any restrictions on foreign investment (including authorisations required by central or local government)? There are only a few restrictions on foreign investment. For example, foreign persons cannot acquire land, subject to a limited number of conditional exceptions. 3 ...

Shepherd and Wedderburn LLP | February 2008

Three separate bids are expected to be submitted to rescue Northern Rock ahead of today's government-imposed deadline.Following a series of government interventions, the chancellor is keen on a private sector rescue for the bank, which has already received £25 billion worth of loans from the Bank of England ...

PLMJ | February 2008

1. Last Friday saw the publication of Decree-Law 13/2008, of 18 January, which extended the tax regime applicable to companies that register to carry on business in the Madeira Free Trade Zone between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2013 ...

Commercial properties groups across Europe are being forced to wait longer to refinance their debts as lenders tighten their belts in the wake of the credit crunch, it has been reported ...

Heuking Kuhn Luer Wojtek | January 2008

1 Framework 1.1 When did Germany first liberalise telecommunications networks and/or services? In 1989 the markets for telecommunications end-user devices, data and value added services, satellite and mobile communications were liberalised. The first mobile communications licence was awarded to a private entity in 1989 (Mannesmann Mobilfunk, now Vodafone) ...

Shoosmiths LLP | January 2008

Companies found guilty of manslaughter under new law could have their finances and reputations ruined.  The Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 comes into force on 6 April 2008. After much controversy and delay the legislation is almost with us.  In a nutshell: The Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 (the “Act”) comes into force in the UK on 6 April 2008 ...

Real estate 1. Please briefly state what is considered real estate in your jurisdiction. What are the most common forms of security granted over it? How are they created and how are they perfected (that is, made valid and enforceable)?Under Romanian law, real estate (generally known as immovable property) covers land, buildings and those movable assets attached to land or buildings as fixtures ...

PLMJ | December 2007

 1. On 31 December 2008, Law 67-A/2007, of 31 December, which enacted the 2008 State Budget, was published. In this booklet, we will discuss the main changes that will take place in our tax laws as a result of this Law, with effect from 1 January 2008.  A) PERSONAL INCOME TAX (IRS) i) Capital income – IRS Category E 2 ...

DORDA | December 2007

Under Austrian law software (object code, source code and engineering material) is subject to the strict protection under the Copyright Act ("UrhG")if a minimum of intelletual workmanship was involved in its creation ...

Shepherd and Wedderburn LLP | December 2007

Over a decade has elapsed since Bosman (a relatively unknown Belgian footballer but now a regular on the Question of Sport picture round) put EC free movement law firmly on the Match of the Day agenda. Over the ensuing years, the European Court of Justice and the European Commission have articulated (sort of…) clearly that sport does not benefit from some "white card" exemption to the application of EC free movement rules ...

Shepherd and Wedderburn LLP | December 2007

On 19 September, the Commission announced its third legislative package aimed at liberalising the EU’s electricity and gas markets ...

DORDA | November 2007

Austria has approximately 140 insurance companies (including 52 Austrian insurance companies, 59 Austrian small mutual associations, and 25 branches of EU/EEA-insurers). The Austrian Financial Market Authority (Finanzmarktaufsichtsbehörde – "FMA"), which supervises the sector, provides a list of insurance undertakings containing all insurance companies authorized to conduct insurance business in Austria plus all insurance classes that the respective companies hold a licence for ...

In recent years, Romania witnessed a continuously growing real estate market, along with a sustained rush of investors, including many foreign ones, eager to secure prime locations for their future development projects.On such a rapidly expanding market, it has been difficult at times to implement sophisticated real estate projects, as the country’s legal framework in the area of real estate did not change overnight, despite Romania’s recent accession to the EU ...

Shepherd and Wedderburn LLP | November 2007

On 3 October, the European Commission fined Visa €10.2 million (approximately £7 million) for its refusal to admit Morgan Stanley Bank International Limited of the UK as a member of the Visa network. The fine is to be seen in the context of continuing regulatory scrutiny of the financial sector, and the banking sector in particular, at both the EU and UK level ...

Shepherd and Wedderburn LLP | November 2007

There is a distinct (and dynamic) overlap between competition law and intellectual property rights, no more evident than from the European Commission's investigations into, and the European Court's judgement in, Microsoft. In a similar vein, the Commission is investigating each of Qualcomm and Rambus for potential abuses of a dominant position (through the allegedly unlawful exploitation of IP rights) in the standard setting arena. No doubt buoyed by U.S ...

In this long running case, the Court of Appeal has granted Dwr Cymru (on 26 July) leave to appeal the Competition Appeal Tribunal's (the CAT) finding that Dwr Cymru had abused its dominant position by setting an access charge that resulted in a margin squeeze on Albion Water (Albion). The Court of Appeal is due to hear the case later this year ...

On July 11, 2007 the European Court of First Instance (“CFI”) ruled that Schneider Electric SA should be compensated for some of the losses suffered following the European Commission’s unlawful prohibition of its merger with Legrand SA in 2001.[2] The CFI’s decision is undoubtedly historic. It is the first case in which damages have been awarded against the Commission for getting a merger wrong ...

Delphi | July 2007

The Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce upholds a strong position as one of the most important centres of international arbitration. The steady growth in the number of cases involving foreign parties that are administered by the Arbitration Institute convincingly demonstrates its worldwide popularity and reputation ...

Private Actions in Competition Law: Effective Redress for Consumers and BusinessResponse by Shepherd and Wedderburn LLP1. Introduction1.1 Shepherd and Wedderburn LLP welcomes the opportunity to comment on the issues raised by the OFT in its April 2007 Discussion Paper: Private Actions in Competition law: Effective Redress for Consumers and Business (the Discussion Paper). 1 ...

PLMJ | June 2007

Since we are in the season for the distribution of dividends, it is not without use to review and update, our last charter on this issue. It shall be recalled that in 2005 the Portuguese tax system streamlined its rules for the taxation of dividends, by harmonising rates which previously varied in accordance to the nature of the recipient of the dividends ...

Ten years ago, we would not have been discussing this topic with the Chairman of the then Monopolies and Mergers Commission. Ten years ago, the MMC was a very different animal from today's Competition Commission. Ten years ago, the MMC was largely outside of the daily media spotlight, less transparent and much closer to government ...

Romania¡¦s yearly economic growth has triggered in the past few years an increased interest for investment in the existing domestic companies. Most of the financial investors seek to leverage their acquisitions and expect the possibility to use the target companies¡¦ assets to such purpose. This article will briefly review corporate limits and prevailing interpretation.Prohibition of financial assistanceRomania has implemented the provisions of art ...

Some things change, others never change. The choice of procurement route is still governed by three main factors:· Time· Cost· Quality It is hard, if not impossible to achieve the best of all these three but when choosing a procurement route consideration must be given to the list of priorities so that people's expectations are properly managed ...

The purpose of this article is to provide a short update as to the legal and policy developments in the area of private enforcement of competition law. Regulatory scrutiny and judicial developments continue to be principally focussed on the issue of follow-on damages actions for infringements of competition law, especially in the cartel arena. However, as can be seen in the English High Court's recent judgement in SanDisk Corporation vs ...

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