North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States

Geographic coordinates:
23 00 N, 102 00 W

Map references:
North America

total:1,964,375 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 14
land:1,943,945 sq km
water:20,430 sq km

Area - comparative:
Area comparison map: '>

Land boundaries:
total:4,353 km
border countries:Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,141 km

9,330 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
contiguous zone:24 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

varies from tropical to desert

high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert

Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Laguna Salada -10 m
highest point:Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m

Natural resources:
petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land:12.98%
permanent crops:1.36%
other:85.66% (2011)

Irrigated land:
64,600 sq km (2009)

Total renewable water resources:
457.2 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
457.2 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts

Environment - current issues:
scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion

Environment - international agreements:
party to:Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Mexico

People and Society

noun: Mexican(s)

Ethnic groups:
mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%

Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%

Roman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.)

120,286,655 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 12

Age structure:
0-14 years:27.9% (male 17,188,577/female 16,423,421)
15-24 years:18.1% (male 10,999,445/female 10,741,999)
25-54 years:40.4% (male 23,385,321/female 25,200,511)
55-64 years:7% (male 3,850,792/female 4,527,074)
65 years and over:6.9% (male 3,594,675/female 4,374,840) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:52.7 %
youth dependency ratio:42.7 %
elderly dependency ratio:10.1 %
potential support ratio:9.9 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total:27.3 years
male:26.3 years
female:28.4 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.21% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 98

Birth rate:
19.02 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 91

Death rate:
5.24 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 182

Net migration rate:
-1.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 158

urban population:78.1% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:1.49% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
MEXICO CITY (capital) 20.446 million; Guadalajara 4.525 million; Monterrey 4.213 million; Puebla 2.335 million; Tijuana 1.82 million; Toluca de Lerdo 1.748 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth:1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years:0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.81 male(s)/female
total population:0.96 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

Maternal mortality rate:
50 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate:
total:12.58 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 123
male:14 deaths/1,000 live births
female:11.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:75.43 yearscountry comparison to the world: 94
male:72.67 years
female:78.32 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.29 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 95

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
70.9% (2006)

Health expenditures:
6.4% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density:
1.96 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density:
1.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source:
urban: 95.9% of population
rural: 90.8% of population
total: 94.9% of population
urban: 3.9% of population
rural: 9.2% of population
total: 5.1% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 87% of population
rural: 79% of population
total: 85.3% of population
urban: 13% of population
rural: 21% of population
total: 14.7% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 115

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
174,300 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 32

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

Major infectious diseases:

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
32.1% (2008)country comparison to the world: 23

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
2.8% (2012)country comparison to the world: 115

Education expenditures:
5.1% of GDP (2009)country comparison to the world: 72

definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:93.5%
female:92.3% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:13 years
male:13 years
female:13 years (2011)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:9.4%country comparison to the world: 113
female:9.9% (2012)


Country name:
conventional long form: United Mexican States
conventional short form:Mexico
local long form:Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form:Mexico

Government type:
federal republic

name:Mexico City (Distrito Federal)
geographic coordinates:19 26 N, 99 08 W
time difference:UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:+1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October
note:Mexico has three time zones

Administrative divisions:
31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Veracruz), Yucatan, Zacatecas

16 September 1810 (declared); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917; amended many times, last in 2014 (2014)

Legal system:
civil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state:President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government:President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012)
cabinet:Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate
elections:president elected by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in July 2018)
election results:Enrique PENA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PENA NIETO (PRI) 38.21%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.59%, Josefina Eugenia VAZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.41%, other 4.79%

Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms, and 32 seats allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members are elected by popular vote; remaining 200 members are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote; members to serve three-year terms)
elections:Senate - last held on 1 July 2012 for all of the seats (next to be held on 1 July 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held on 5 July 2015)
election results:Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 52, PAN 38, PRD 22, PVEM 9, PT 4, Movimiento Ciudadano 2, PANAL 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 208, PAN 114, PRD 100, PVEM 33, PT 19, Movimiento Ciudadano 16, PANAL 10

Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges)
judge selection and term of office:Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve for life; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a single-renewable 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, single-renewable 9-year terms
subordinate courts:federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts

    Political parties and leaders:
Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) [Dante DELGADO Rannaoro]
Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Cesar CAMACHO Quiroz]
Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [vacant]
National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Gustavo MADERO Munoz]
New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA/PANAL [Luis CASTRO Obregon]
Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Jesus ZAMBRANO Grijalva]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE

International organization participation:
APEC, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-3, G-15, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Eduardo MEDINA MORA Icaza (since 11 January 2013)
chancery:1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone:[1] (202) 728-1600
FAX:[1] (202) 728-1698
consulate(s) general:Anchorage (AK), Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso (TX), Houston, Laredo (TX), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (AZ), Phoenix, Sacramento (CA), San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Saint Paul (MN)
consulate(s):Albuquerque, Boise (ID), Brownsville (TX), Calexico (CA), Del Rio (TX), Detroit, Douglas (AZ), Eagle Pass (TX), Fresno (CA), Indianapolis (IN), Kansas City (MO), Las Vegas (NV), Little Rock (AR), McAllen (TX), New Orleans, Omaha (NE), Orlando (FL), Oxnard (CA), Philadelphia, Portland (OR), Presidio (TX), Raleigh (NC), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino (CA), Santa Ana (CA), Seattle, Tucson (AZ), Yuma (AZ); note - Washington DC Consular Section located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Earl Anthony WAYNE (since 2 August 2011)
embassy:Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal
mailing address:P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000
telephone:[52] (55) 5080-2000
FAX:[52] (55) 5080-2834
consulate(s) general:Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana

Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City

National symbol(s):
golden eagle

National anthem:
name:'Himno Nacional Mexicano' (National Anthem of Mexico)

lyrics/music:Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA
note:adopted 1943, in use since 1854; the anthem is also known as 'Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra' (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed


Economy - overview:
Mexico's $1.3 trillion economy has become increasingly oriented toward manufacturing in the 20 years since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Mexico has become the United States' second-largest export market and third-largest source of imports. In 2013, two-way merchandise trade reached nearly $507 billion. Mexico has free trade agreements with over 50 countries including Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, the European Free Trade Area, and Japan - putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2012 Mexico formally joined the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Colombia and Chile. Mexico's current government, led by President Enrique PENA NIETO, emphasized economic reforms during its first year in office, passing education, energy, financial, fiscal and telecommunications reform legislation. The three-party 'Pact for Mexico' reform agenda aims to improve competitiveness and economic growth across the Mexican economy.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.845 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
$1.823 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.76 trillion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.327 trillion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
1.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
3.6% (2012 est.)
4% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$15,600 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
$15,600 (2012 est.)
$15,200 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
21% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
21.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
21.2% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:69.1%
government consumption:11.8%
investment in fixed capital:22.7%
investment in inventories:-1%
exports of goods and services:31.2%
imports of goods and services:-33.8%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
services:59.8% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products

food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
3.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83

Labor force:
51.48 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Labor force - by occupation:
services:61.9% (2011)

Unemployment rate:
4.9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
5.3% (2012 est.)
note:underemployment may be as high as 25%

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:2%
highest 10%:37.5% (2010)

    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
48.3 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 24
53.1 (1998)

revenues:$291.2 billion
expenditures:$324.1 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
21.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105

Public debt:
37.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
35.8% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
3.6% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
4.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
4.5% (31 December 2011 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
4.7% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
4.73% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$174.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
$170.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$713 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
$671.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$444.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
$404.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$525.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance:
-$14.18 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
-$11.84 billion (2012 est.)

$370.9 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$349.6 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton

Exports - partners:
US 78% (2012)

$370.7 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$350.9 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts

Imports - partners:
US 49.9%, China 15.4%, Japan 4.8% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$167.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$149.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:
$354.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
$286.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$435.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
$400.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$141.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$133 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -
12.76 (2013 est.)
13.17 (2012 est.)
12.636 (2010 est.)
13.514 (2009)
11.016 (2008)


Electricity - production:
296 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Electricity - consumption:
212.3 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

Electricity - exports:
1.286 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55

Electricity - imports:
603 million kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
62 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
76.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
2.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
18.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
3.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

Crude oil - production:
2.936 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Crude oil - exports:
1.46 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98

    Crude oil - proved reserves:
10.26 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

Refined petroleum products - production:
1.364 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
2.133 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Refined petroleum products - exports:
189,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

Refined petroleum products - imports:
607,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10

Natural gas - production:
53.96 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

Natural gas - consumption:
59.15 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Natural gas - exports:
11 million cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51

Natural gas - imports:
17.24 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Natural gas - proved reserves:
487.7 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
462.3 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
20.22 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 14

Telephones - mobile cellular:
100.786 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 13

Telephone system:
general assessment:adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable
domestic:despite the opening to competition in January 1997, Telmex remains dominant; Fixed-line teledensity is less than 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 80 per 100 persons
international:country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2011)

    Broadcast media:
many TV stations and more than 1,400 radio stations with most privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available (2012)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
16.233 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 9

Internet users:
31.02 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 12


1,714 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 3

Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m:12
2,438 to 3,047 m:32
1,524 to 2,437 m:80
914 to 1,523 m:86
under 914 m:33 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways
over 3,047 m:1
2,438 to 3,047 m:1
1,524 to 2,437 m:42
914 to 1,523 m:281
under 914 m:
1,146 (2013)

1 (2013)

gas 18,074 km; liquid petroleum 2,102 km; oil 8,775 km; oil/gas/water 369 km; refined products 7,565 km; water 123 km (2013)

total:17,166 kmcountry comparison to the world: 16
standard gauge:17,166 km 1.435-m gauge (22 km electrified) (2008)

total:377,660 kmcountry comparison to the world: 18
paved:137,544 km (includes 7,176 km of expressways)
unpaved:240,116 km (2012)

2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 34

Merchant marine
total:52country comparison to the world: 70
by type:bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, chemical tanker 11, liquefied gas 3, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 17, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned:5 (France 1, Greece 2, South Africa 1, UAE 1)
registered in other countries:12 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Marshall Islands 2, Panama 5, Portugal 1, Spain 1, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Salina Cruz, Veracruz
oil terminals:Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminal


Military branches
Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM); includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)) (2013)

Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation is 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary; women are eligible for voluntary military service; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces (2012)

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:28,815,506
females age 16-49:30,363,558 (2010 est.)

    Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:23,239,866
females age 16-49:25,642,549 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
female:1,067,007 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures
0.59% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 124
0.56% of GDP (2011)
0.59% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international
abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the United States; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty

Refugees and internally displaced persons
IDPs:160,000 (government's quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region; drug cartel violence and government's military response since 2007; violence between and within indigenous groups) (2013 est.)
stateless persons:7 (2012)

    Illicit drugs
major drug-producing and transit nation; world's second largest opium poppy cultivator; opium poppy cultivation in 2009 rose 31% over 2008 to 19,500 hectares yielding a potential production of 50 metric tons of pure heroin, or 125 metric tons of 'black tar' heroin, the dominant form of Mexican heroin in the western United States; marijuana cultivation increased 45% to 17,500 hectares in 2009; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 95% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market (2007)
Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book

Doing Business in Mexico 2020

Mexico Ease of Doing Business Rank: 60 Overall Score: 72.4
Starting a Business (rank) 107
Score 86.1
Procedures - Men (number) 8
Time - Men (number) 8
Cost - Men (days) 15.2
Procedures - Women (days) 8
Time - Women (% of income per capita) 8
Cost - Women (% of income per capita) 15.2
Paid in minimum capital (% of income per capita) 0
Dealing with Construction Permits (rank) 93
Score 68.8
Procedures (number) 15
Time (days) 82
Cost (% of warehouse value) 9.5
Building Quality Control Index(0-15) 11.7
Quality of building regulations index (0-2) 2
Quality control before construction index (0-1) 1
Quality control during construction index (0-3) 2
Quality control after construction index (0-3) 2.2
Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2) 1.2
Professional certifications index (0-4) 3.3
Getting Electricity (rank) 106
Score 71.1
Procedures (number) 7
Time (days) 100
Cost (% of income per capita) 264.4
Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 7
Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3) 3
Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1) 1
Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1) 1
Regulatory monitoring (0-1) 1
Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1) 0
Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1) 1
System average interruption duration index (SAIDI) 0.6
System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) 0.9
Minimum outage time (in minutes) 5
Price of electricity (US cents per kWh) 16.5
Registering Property (rank) 105
Score 60.2
Procedures (number) 8
Time (days) 39
Cost (% of property value) 5.9
Quality of land administration index (0-30) 16.3
Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8) 5
Transparency of information index (0-6) 3.9
Geographic coverage index (0-8) 2
Land dispute resolution index (0-8) 5
Equal access to property rights index (-2-0) 0
Getting credit (rank) 11
Score 90
Strength of legal rights index (0-12) 10
Depth of credit information index (0-8) 8
Getting Credit total score 18
Credit registry coverage (% of adults) 0
Credit bureau coverage (% of adults) 100
Protecting Minority Investors (rank) 61
Score 62
Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 8
Extent of director liability index (0-10) 5
Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 5
Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) 5
Extent of ownership and control index (0-7) 5
Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) 3
Strength of minority investor protection index (0-50) 31
Paying Taxes (rank) 120
Score 65.8
Payments (number per year) 6
Time (hours per year) 241
Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit) 55.1
Profit tax (% of profit) 27
Labor tax and contributions (% of profit) 27.2
Other taxes (% of profit) 0.9
Time to comply with VAT refund (hours) 21
Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks) 42
Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours) 14
Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks) 87
Postfiling index (0-100) 40.5
Trading across borders (rank) 69
Score 82.1
Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours) 8
Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours) 18
Time to export: Border compliance (hours) 20
Time to import: Border compliance (hours) 44
Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD) 60
Cost to import: Documentary compliance 100
Cost to export: Border compliance (USD) 400
Cost to import: Border compliance (USD) 450
Enforcing contract (rank) 43
Score 67
Time (days) 341
Filing and service (days) 37
Trial and judgment (days) 124
Enforcement of judgment (days) 179
Cost (% of claim) 33
Attorney fees (% of claim) 22.1
Court fees (% of claim) 5
Enforcement fees (% of claim) 5.8
Quality of the judicial processes index (0-18) 10.1
Court structure and proceedings (0-5) 3.8
Case management (0-6) 3.3
Court automation (0-4) 0.5
Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) 2.5
Resolving Insolvency (rank) 33
Score 70.3
Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) 1
Time (years) 1.8
Cost (% of estate) 18
Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 63.9
Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16) 11.5
Commencement of proceedings index (0-3) 2.5
Management of debtor's assets index (0-6) 5.5
Reorganization proceedings index (0-3) 1.5
Creditor participation index (0-4) 2
Information provided by The World Bank Group