North Asia bordering the Arctic Ocean, extending from Europe (the portion west of the Urals) to the North Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
60 00 N, 100 00 E

Map references:

total:17,098,242 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 1
land:16,377,742 sq km
water:720,500 sq km

Area - comparative:
Area comparison map: '>

Land boundaries:
total:22,407 km
border countries:Azerbaijan 338 km, Belarus 1,312 km, China (southeast) 4,133 km, China (south) 46 km, Estonia 324 km, Finland 1,309 km, Georgia 894 km, Kazakhstan 7,644 km, North Korea 18 km, Latvia 332 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 261 km, Mongolia 3,452 km, Norway 191 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 209 km, Ukraine 1,944 km

37,653 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
contiguous zone:24 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions

Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point:Gora El'brus 5,633 m (highest point in Europe)

Natural resources:
wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, reserves of rare earth elements, timber

Land use:
arable land:7.11%
permanent crops:0.1%
other:92.79% (2011)

Irrigated land:
43,460 sq km (2008)

Total renewable water resources:
4,508 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
4,508 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia

Environment - current issues:
air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides

Environment - international agreements:
party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:Air Pollution-Sulfur 94

Geography - note:
largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak; Lake Baikal, the deepest lake in the world, is estimated to hold one fifth of the world's fresh water

People and Society

noun: Russian(s)

Ethnic groups:
Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9%

Russian (official) 96.3%, Dolgang 5.3%, German 1.5%, Chechen 1%, Tatar 3%, other 10.3%

Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.)

142,470,272 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 10

Age structure:
0-14 years:16.4% (male 11,980,138/female 11,344,818)
15-24 years:10.7% (male 7,828,947/female 7,482,143)
25-54 years:45.8% (male 31,928,886/female 33,319,671)
55-64 years:13.8% (male 8,408,637/female 11,287,153)
65 years and over:13.1% (male 5,783,983/female 13,105,896) (2014 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:41.3 %
youth dependency ratio:22.8 %
elderly dependency ratio:18.5 %
potential support ratio:5.4 (2014 est.)

Median age:
total:38.9 years
male:36 years
female:41.9 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:
-0.03% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 200

Birth rate:
11.87 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 168

Death rate:
13.83 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 10

Net migration rate:
1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 52

urban population:73.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:0.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
MOSCOW (capital) 11.621 million; Saint Petersburg 4.866 million; Novosibirsk 1.478 million; Yekaterinburg 1.355 million; Nizhniy Novgorod 1.245 million; Samara 1.166 million (2011)

Sex ratio:
at birth:1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years:0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.44 male(s)/female
total population:0.86 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
24.6 (2009 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
34 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate:
total:7.08 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 160
male:7.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female:6.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:70.16 yearscountry comparison to the world: 151
male:64.37 years
female:76.3 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.61 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 179

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

Health expenditures:
6.2% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density:
4.31 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density:
9.7 beds/1,000 population (2006)

Drinking water source:
urban: 98.7% of population
rural: 92.2% of population
total: 97% of population
urban: 1.3% of population
rural: 7.8% of population
total: 3% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 74.4% of population
rural: 59.3% of population
total: 70.5% of population
urban: 25.6% of population
rural: 40.7% of population
total: 29.5% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 47

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
980,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 12

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

Major infectious diseases:

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
26.5% (2008)country comparison to the world: 46

Education expenditures:
4.1% of GDP (2008)country comparison to the world: 110

definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:99.7%
female:99.6% (2010 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:14 years
male:14 years
female:15 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:14.8%country comparison to the world: 84
female:15.1% (2012)


Country name:
conventional long form: Russian Federation
conventional short form:Russia
local long form:Rossiyskaya Federatsiya
local short form:Rossiya
former:Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Government type:

geographic coordinates:55 45 N, 37 36 E
time difference:UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:+1hr; note - Russia has announced that it will remain on daylight saving time permanently, which began on 27 March 2011
note:Russia has 9 time zones

Administrative divisions:
46 provinces (oblastey, singular - oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular - respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular - avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (krayev, singular - kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular - gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast')

24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 1157 (Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal created); 16 January 1547 (Tsardom of Muscovy established); 22 October 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed); 30 December 1922 (Soviet Union established)

National holiday:
Russia Day, 12 June (1990)

several previous (during Russian Empire and Soviet eras); latest drafted 12 July 1993, adopted by referendum 12 December 1993, effective 25 December 1993; amended 2008 (2013)

Legal system:
civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state:President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)
head of government:Premier Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 8 May 2012); First Deputy Premier Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Arkadiy Vladimirovich DVORKOVICH (since 21 May 2012), Olga Yuryevna GOLODETS (since 21 May 2012), Aleksandr Gennadiyevich KHLOPONIN (since 19 January 2010), Dmitriy Nikolayevich KOZAK (since 14 October 2008), Dmitriy Olegovich ROGOZIN (since 23 December 2011), Sergey Eduardovich PRIKHODKO (since 22 May 2013), Yuriy Petrovich TRUTNEV (since 31 August 2013)
cabinet:the 'Government' is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers; all are appointed by the president, and the premier is also confirmed by the Duma
note:there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president
elections:president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 4 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018); note - the term length was extended from four to six years in late 2008, effective after the 2012 election; there is no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, or resigns, the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
election results:Vladimir PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN 63.6%, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV 17.2%, Mikhail PROKHOROV 8%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY 6.2%, Sergey MIRONOV 3.9%, other 1.1%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV approved as premier by Duma; vote - 299 to 144

Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of an upper house, the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (166 seats; two members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials in each of the 83 federal administrative units - oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; term lengths are not fixed but instead are determined by the regional bodies represented) and a lower house, the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of 2007, all members elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 7% of the vote; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections:State Duma - last held on 4 December 2011 (next to be held in December 2016)
election results:State Duma - United Russia 49.6%, CPRF 19.2%, Just Russia 13.2%, LDPR 11.7%, other 6.3%; total seats by party - United Russia 238, CPRF 92, Just Russia 64, LDPR 56

    Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (consists of 23 members); Constitutional Court (consists of 19 members); Superior Court of Arbitration (consists of a chairman and 4 deputy chairmen); note - as of January 2014 legislation was pending that would merge the Constitutional Court and Superior Court of Arbitration
judge selection and term of office:all members of Russia's three highest courts nominated by the president and appointed by the Federation Council (the upper house of the legislature); members of all three courts appointed for life
subordinate courts:Higher Arbitration Court; regional (kray) and provincial (oblast) courts; Moscow and St. Petersburg city courts; autonomous province and district courts; note - the 14 Russian Republics have court systems specified by their own constitutions

Political parties and leaders:
seventy eight political parties are registered with Russia's Ministry of Justice (as of January 2014), but only four parties maintain representation in Russia's national legislature:
A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]
Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]
United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Labor of Russia (KTR)

International organization participation:
APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Sergey Ivanovich KISLYAK (since 16 September 2008)
chancery:2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:[1] (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708
FAX:[1] (202) 298-5735
consulate(s) general:Houston, New York, San Francisco, Seattle

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Chargé d'Affaires Sheila GWALTNEY (since 27 February 2014)
embassy:Bolshoy Deviatinskiy Pereulok No. 8, 121099 Moscow
mailing address:PSC-77, APO AE 09721
telephone:[7] (495) 728-5000
FAX:[7] (495) 728-5090
consulate(s) general:Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red

National symbol(s):
bear; double-headed eagle

National anthem:
name:'Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii' (National Anthem of the Russian Federation)

lyrics/music:Sergey Vladimirovich MIKHALKOV/Aleksandr Vasilyevich ALEKSANDROV
note:in 2000, Russia adopted the tune of the anthem of the former Soviet Union (composed in 1939); the lyrics, also adopted in 2000, were written by the same person who authored the Soviet lyrics in 1943


Economy - overview:
Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolated, centrally-planned economy towards a more market-based and globally-integrated economy, but stalling as a partially reformed, statist economy with a high concentration of wealth in officials' hands. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak and the private sector remains subject to heavy state interference. Russia is one of the world's leading producers of oil and natural gas and is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum. Russia's manufacturing sector is generally uncompetitive on world markets and is geared toward domestic consumption. Russia's reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices. The economy, which had averaged 7% growth during 1998-2008 as oil prices rose rapidly, was one of the hardest hit by the 2008-09 global economic crisis as oil prices plummeted and the foreign credits that Russian banks and firms relied on dried up. Slowly declining oil prices over the past few years and difficulty attracting foreign direct investment have contributed to a noticeable slowdown in GDP growth rates. In late 2013, the Russian Economic Development Ministry reduced its growth forecast through 2030 to an average of only 2.5% per year, down from its previous forecast of 4.0 to 4.2%. In 2014, following Russia's military intervention in Ukraine, prospects for economic growth declined further, with expections that GDP growth could drop as low as zero.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$2.553 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
$2.52 trillion (2012 est.)
$2.437 trillion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.113 trillion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
1.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
3.4% (2012 est.)
4.3% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$18,100 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
$17,800 (2012 est.)
$17,100 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:
28.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
29.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
30.6% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:51.3%
government consumption:18.8%
investment in fixed capital:22%
investment in inventories:1.4%
exports of goods and services:29.6%
imports of goods and services:-23%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
services:58.3% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:
grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk

complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries (including radar, missile production, advanced electronic components), shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate:
0.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165

Labor force:
75.29 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

Labor force - by occupation:
services:62.5% (2012)

Unemployment rate:
5.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
5.5% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line:
11% (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:5.7%
highest 10%:42.4% (2011 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
42 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 50
41.7 (2011)

revenues:$439 billion
expenditures:$450.3 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
20.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-0.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

Public debt:
7.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
8% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
5.1% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
8.25% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
8% (31 December 2011)
note:this is the so-called refinancing rate, but in Russia banks do not get refinancing at this rate; this is a reference rate used primarily for fiscal purposes

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
9.3% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
9.1% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$452.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$399.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$1.061 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$893.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$947 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$922.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$874.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance:
$74.8 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$71.43 billion (2012 est.)

$515 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
$528 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures

Exports - partners:
Netherlands 14.6%, China 6.8%, Germany 6.8%, Italy 6.2%, Turkey 5.2%, Ukraine 5.2%, Belarus 4.7% (2012 est.)

$341 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$335.7 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:
machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel

Imports - partners:
China 16.6%, Germany 12.2%, Ukraine 5.7%, Japan 5%, United States 4.9%, France 4.4%, Italy 4.3% (2012 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$515.6 billion (01 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
$537.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:
$714.2 billion (30 September 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
$636.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$552.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$497.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$439.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$387.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:
Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar -
31.82 (2013 est.)
30.84 (2012 est.)
30.368 (2010 est.)
31.74 (2009)
24.853 (2008)


Electricity - production:
1.057 trillion kWh (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Electricity - consumption:
1.038 trillion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Electricity - exports:
19.14 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Electricity - imports:
2.661 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
223.1 million kW (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
67.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
17.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
15.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117

Crude oil - production:
10.44 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3

Crude oil - exports:
4.72 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2

Crude oil - imports:
16,380 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69

    Crude oil - proved reserves:
80 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

Refined petroleum products - production:
4.812 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
3.196 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6

Refined petroleum products - exports:
2.92 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

Refined petroleum products - imports:
24,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97

Natural gas - production:
669.7 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2

Natural gas - consumption:
457.2 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2

Natural gas - exports:
196 billion cu m (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

Natural gas - imports:
32.5 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17

Natural gas - proved reserves:
47.8 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
1.788 billion Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use:
42.9 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 6

Telephones - mobile cellular:
261.9 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 5

Telephone system:
general assessment:the telephone system is experiencing significant changes; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to more than 235 million in 2011; fixed line service has improved but a large demand remains
domestic:cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low density
international:country code - 7; Russia is connected internationally by undersea fiber optic cables; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2011)

    Broadcast media:
6 national TV stations with the federal government owning 1 and holding a controlling interest in a second; state-owned Gazprom maintains a controlling interest in a third national channel; government-affiliated Bank Rossiya owns controlling interest in a fourth and fifth, while the sixth national channel is owned by the Moscow city administration; roughly 3,300 national, regional, and local TV stations with over two-thirds completely or partially controlled by the federal or local governments; satellite TV services are available; 2 state-run national radio networks with a third majority-owned by Gazprom; roughly 2,400 public and commercial radio stations (2007)

Internet country code:
.ru; note - Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain '.su' that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out

Internet hosts:
14.865 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 10

Internet users:
40.853 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 10


1,218 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 5

Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m:54
2,438 to 3,047 m:197
1,524 to 2,437 m:123
914 to 1,523 m:95
under 914 m:125 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways
over 3,047 m:4
2,438 to 3,047 m:13
1,524 to 2,437 m:69
914 to 1,523 m:81
under 914 m:
457 (2013)

49 (2013)

condensate 122 km; gas 163,872 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,378 km; oil 80,820 km; oil/gas/water 40 km; refined products 13,658 km; water 23 km (2013)

total:87,157 kmcountry comparison to the world: 2
broad gauge:86,200 km 1.520-m gauge (40,300 km electrified)
narrow gauge:957 km 1.067-m gauge (on Sakhalin Island)
note:an additional 30,000 km of non-common carrier lines serve industries (2006)

total:1,283,387 kmcountry comparison to the world: 5
paved:927,721 km (includes 39,143 km of expressways)
unpaved:355,666 km (2012)

102,000 km (including 48,000 km with guaranteed depth; the 72,000 km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea) (2009)
country comparison to the world: 2

Merchant marine
total:1,143country comparison to the world: 11
by type:bulk carrier 20, cargo 642, carrier 3, chemical tanker 57, combination ore/oil 42, container 13, passenger 15, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 244, refrigerated cargo 84, roll on/roll off 13, specialized tanker 3
foreign-owned:155 (Belgium 4, Cyprus 13, Estonia 1, Ireland 1, Italy 14, Latvia 2, Netherlands 2, Romania 1, South Korea 1, Switzerland 3, Turkey 101, Ukraine 12)
registered in other countries:439 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belgium 1, Belize 30, Bulgaria 2, Cambodia 50, Comoros 12, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 46, Dominica 3, Georgia 6, Hong Kong 1, Kiribati 1, Liberia 109, Malaysia 2, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 5, Moldova 5, Mongolia 2, Panama 49, Romania 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 13, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11, Sierra Leone 7, Singapore 2, Spain 6, Vanuatu 7, unknown 19) (2010)

Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Kaliningrad, Nakhodka, Novorossiysk, Primorsk, Vostochnyy
river port(s):Saint Petersburg (Neva River)
oil terminal(s):Kavkaz oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs):Saint Petersburg (2,365,174)


Military branches
Ground Troops (Sukhoputnyye Voyskia, SV), Navy (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot, VMF), Air Forces (Voyenno-Vozdushniye Sily, VVS); Airborne Troops (Vozdushno-Desantnyye Voyska, VDV), Missile Troops of Strategic Purpose (Raketnyye Voyska Strategicheskogo Naznacheniya, RVSN) referred to commonly as Strategic Rocket Forces, and Aerospace Defense Troops (Voyska Vozdushno-Kosmicheskoy Oborony or Voyska VKO) are independent 'combat arms,' not subordinate to any of the three branches; Russian Ground Troops include the following combat arms: motorized-rifle troops, tank troops, missile and artillery troops, air defense of the Ground Troops (2014)

Military service age and obligation
18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; males are registered for the draft at 17 years of age; service obligation is 1 year (conscripts can only be sent to combat zones after 6 months of training); reserve obligation for non-officers to age 50; enrollment in military schools from the age of 16, cadets classified as members of the armed forces

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:34,765,736
females age 16-49:35,410,779 (2013 est.)

    Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:22,597,728
females age 16-49:23,017,006 (2013 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
female:664,847 (2013 est.)

Military expenditures
4.47% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 8
4.13% of GDP (2011)
4.47% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international
Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the 'Northern Territories' and in Russia as the 'Southern Kurils,' occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission

    Refugees and internally displaced persons
IDPs:at least 34,900 (armed conflict, human rights violations, generalized violence in North Caucasus, particularly Chechnya and North Ossetia) (2013)
stateless persons:178,000 (2012); note - Russia's stateless population consists of Roma, Meskhetian Turks, and ex-Soviet citizens from the former republics; between 2003 and 2010 more than 600,000 stateless people were naturalized; most Meskhetian Turks, followers of Islam with origins in Georgia, fled or were evacuated from Uzbekistan after a 1989 pogrom and have lived in Russia for more than the required five-year residency period; they continue to be denied registration for citizenship and basic rights by local Krasnodar Krai authorities on the grounds that they are temporary illegal migrants

Trafficking in persons

Illicit drugs
limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates
Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book

Doing Business in Russia 2020

Russia Ease of Doing Business Rank: 28 Overall Score: 78.2
Starting a Business (rank) 40
Score 93.1
Procedures - Men (number) 4
Time - Men (number) 10
Cost - Men (days) 1
Procedures - Women (days) 4
Time - Women (% of income per capita) 10
Cost - Women (% of income per capita) 1
Paid in minimum capital (% of income per capita) 0
Dealing with Construction Permits (rank) 26
Score 78.9
Procedures (number) 13
Time (days) 165
Cost (% of warehouse value) 1.1
Building Quality Control Index(0-15) 14
Quality of building regulations index (0-2) 2
Quality control before construction index (0-1) 1
Quality control during construction index (0-3) 3
Quality control after construction index (0-3) 3
Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2) 1
Professional certifications index (0-4) 4
Getting Electricity (rank) 7
Score 97.5
Procedures (number) 2
Time (days) 41
Cost (% of income per capita) 5
Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8) 8
Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3) 3
Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1) 1
Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1) 1
Regulatory monitoring (0-1) 1
Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1) 1
Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1) 1
System average interruption duration index (SAIDI) 0.2
System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) 0.1
Minimum outage time (in minutes) 1
Price of electricity (US cents per kWh) 8.4
Registering Property (rank) 12
Score 88.6
Procedures (number) 4
Time (days) 14
Cost (% of property value) 0.1
Quality of land administration index (0-30) 26
Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8) 8
Transparency of information index (0-6) 6
Geographic coverage index (0-8) 4
Land dispute resolution index (0-8) 8
Equal access to property rights index (-2-0) 0
Getting credit (rank) 25
Score 80
Strength of legal rights index (0-12) 9
Depth of credit information index (0-8) 7
Getting Credit total score 16
Credit registry coverage (% of adults) 0
Credit bureau coverage (% of adults) 100
Protecting Minority Investors (rank) 72
Score 60
Extent of disclosure index (0-10) 6
Extent of director liability index (0-10) 2
Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) 7
Extent of shareholder rights index (0-6) 5
Extent of ownership and control index (0-7) 4
Extent of corporate transparency index (0-7) 6
Strength of minority investor protection index (0-50) 30
Paying Taxes (rank) 58
Score 80.5
Payments (number per year) 9
Time (hours per year) 159
Total tax and contribution rate (% of profit) 46.2
Profit tax (% of profit) 7.4
Labor tax and contributions (% of profit) 36.6
Other taxes (% of profit) 2.2
Time to comply with VAT refund (hours) 7
Time to obtain VAT refund (weeks) 19
Time to comply with a corporate income tax correction (hours) 6
Time to complete a corporate income tax correction (weeks) 11
Postfiling index (0-100) 77.8
Trading across borders (rank) 99
Score 71.8
Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours) 25
Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours) 43
Time to export: Border compliance (hours) 66
Time to import: Border compliance (hours) 30
Cost to export: Documentary compliance (USD) 92
Cost to import: Documentary compliance 153
Cost to export: Border compliance (USD) 580
Cost to import: Border compliance (USD) 520
Enforcing contract (rank) 21
Score 72.2
Time (days) 337
Filing and service (days) 60
Trial and judgment (days) 157
Enforcement of judgment (days) 120
Cost (% of claim) 16.5
Attorney fees (% of claim) 11.5
Court fees (% of claim) 5
Enforcement fees (% of claim) 0
Quality of the judicial processes index (0-18) 9.5
Court structure and proceedings (0-5) 3
Case management (0-6) 4
Court automation (0-4) 0
Alternative dispute resolution (0-3) 2.5
Resolving Insolvency (rank) 57
Score 59.1
Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern) 0
Time (years) 2
Cost (% of estate) 9
Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) 43
Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16) 11.5
Commencement of proceedings index (0-3) 2.5
Management of debtor's assets index (0-6) 5
Reorganization proceedings index (0-3) 1
Creditor participation index (0-4) 3
Information provided by The World Bank Group