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Under the current law, for an organisation to be liable for a fatality the 'identification' principle must apply. This first requires an individual to be personally guilty of the wrongdoing. This individual must then be identified as the "controlling mind" of the company. There are several problems with the current system. It is often impossible to identify the "controlling mind" behind the decision which results in the death ...

Enron, WorldCom, Tyco International and Parmalat: names associated with tales of corruption, mismanagement and financial irregularity. But these names are now also synonymous with something else: a raft of reforms to company regulation worldwide. Two such reforms being felt in the UK are the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004, and the FTSE Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS) Corporate Governance Index Series ...

A&L Goodbody LLP | April 2005

The EU Directives on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and the Restriction of certain Hazardous Substances in Electronic and Electrical Equipment (ROHS) are due to take effect from 13 August 2005. The Department of the Environment recently produced draft regulations to implement these directives and make the necessary amendments to existing waste legislation ...

Ellex Valiunas | April 2005

The article appeared in the 2005 edition of The International Comparative Legal Guide to: Environment Law; published and reproduced with kind permission of Global Legal Group Ltd, London ...

A&L Goodbody LLP | April 2005

2004 has again been a very busy year on the M&A and Corporate Finance front, with the building materials, financial services, media and the property sectors dominating. The take private arena has been particularly active. Having been privatised in 2002, eircom was floated again earlier in the year with a market capitalisation of €1.1 billion ...

A&L Goodbody LLP | April 2005

In part two of his article on Near and Offshore Outsourcings Dominic Conlon of A&L Goodbody sets out a list of issues which should be considered by any company looking to outsource its service requirements to a provider based in a foreign jurisdiction ...

A&L Goodbody LLP | April 2005

Outsourcing is not a new phenomenon. As business processes become more complex and costly many Irish companies are concentrating on their core activities and handing over responsibility for running expensive systems and managing large numbers of employees to expert third parties, for an agreed price. Irish companies are also increasingly outsourcing for strategic reasons, looking to leverage the specialist expertise of service providers to open new product and market opportunities ...

A&L Goodbody LLP | April 2005

What is State Aid? The State aid rules seek to control the aid or assistance which is provided by EU Member States to businesses. Article 87 of the EC Treaty states that “any aid granted by a Member State or through State resources in any form whatsoever” is incompatible with the common market. The Commission and the European Court of Justice have a considerable discretion in determining what amounts to State aid and have given the term a wide definition ...

Limited Companies (LCs) and Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) are corporate structures that exist as separate legal entities and afford members limited liability. LCs and LLPs can enter into contracts, hold property, sue and be sued, grant fixed and floating charges and are subject to similar disclosure, accounting and filing requirements. The main distinction between them is that while an LC is treated as a taxable entity an LLP’s members are taxed as individuals ...

After long years of fierce debate, the Kyoto Protocol finally came into force on 16 February 2005, imposing obligations on states parties to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. This article takes a look at the background to the Protocol, and the many new and varied opportunities for businesses in Scotland and across the globe. The Protocol itself was adopted at the Third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Kyoto on 11 December 1997 ...

Asters | March 2005

The year 2004 saw increased M&A activity in the Ukrainian banking sector. Some of the notable acquisitions include equity transfers in Kredit Bank (to PKO Bank Polski S.A.), Transbank (to Bank TuranAlem of Kazakhstan),Bank Leader (to Renaissance Capital of Russia), and, of course, the benchmark deal of the year — acquisitionby Vilniaus Bankas, a Lithuanian subsidiary of the powerful SEB Group of Sweden, of the Joint Stock Bank Agio ...

Ellex Valiunas | March 2005

Foreign arbitral awards and court judgments in Lithuania may be enforced only after having been recognised and authorised for enforcement by the Court of Appeals of Lithuania, an authority empowered by the State to recognise awards/judgments and authorise their enforcement ...

Shepherd and Wedderburn LLP | February 2005

With more than 13 million working days a year lost to stress at an estimated cost of £3.8 billion to the economy, managing employees’ anxiety levels has never been more important Although the figure of half a million workers in the UK experiencing work-related stress at intolerable levels appears manageable, this is really only the tip of the iceberg with up to five million people feeling 'very' or 'extremely' stressed by work ...

Shepherd and Wedderburn LLP | February 2005

This will depend on how much money you are trying to raise and the number of people to whom you intend to offer the shares. The biggest change to the current AIM prospectus will occur if you are raising more than EUR 2.5 million (about £1.7 million) and you are offering shares to more than 100 people. If that is the case, the prospective directive (PD) will apply and the company will need to produce a PD prospectus ...

A&L Goodbody LLP | February 2005

Introduction Advocate General Jacobs, in delivering his Opinion in Syfait and others v Glaxosmithkline (Case C-53/03, 28 October 2004), has found in favour of Glaxosmithkline (GSK) by stating that the refusal by a dominant pharmaceutical company to fulfil all orders from wholesalers does not automatically constitute an abuse of a dominant position, despite such refusal clearly limiting parallel trade of the products in question ...

A&L Goodbody LLP | February 2005

This article is intended to provide some solutions on how to reduce the amount of parallel imports of your products into Ireland without breaching European law. Parallel trade of products occurs within the European Union (EU) as EU legislation provides for the free movement of goods within the EU. This rule frequently results in products being imported from cheaper countries within the EU (for example Greece) to more expensive countries within the EU (for example Ireland) ...

Shepherd and Wedderburn LLP | February 2005

In November the UK government bowed to pressure from unions and bereaved relatives and announced its intention to produce a draft bill on corporate killing for England and Wales. This bill, if successful, would have enabled companies to be prosecuted for management failures that resulted in a person's death. No such government bill has however, been forthcoming. Nor is it likely that any such government bill will appear before the 2005 general election ...

Despite rumours from Westminster that the Pensions Bill was to be dropped to make room for the anti-fox hunting Bill, it looks certain that the Pensions Bill will finally receive Royal Assent in November. In its final form, the Bill now extends to over 350 pages. Those looking for simplification will be disappointed to say the least ...

Delphi | January 2005

In this article, the authors discuss how the tax system in Sweden treats Corporations ...

The first legal issue to consider is whether your company has the power to carry out non-commercial dealings such as making political or charitable donations. The company's constitution should be reviewed to ensure the company is expressly empowered to make such donations. If no express power exists you could consider putting a relevant amendment of the constitution to a shareholders' vote ...

A&L Goodbody LLP | January 2005

The UK press reported recently (August 2004) that an unnamed Lloyds TSB customer, backed by the Lloyds TSB Group Union, has complained to the Information Commissioner (the UK equivalent of the Irish Data Protection Commissioner) in respect of the transfer abroad of “sensitive personal data” 1 held by Lloyds about its customers. The government-appointed information commissioner has been asked to rule on whether Lloyds TSB is acting illegally ...

From Land’s End to John O’Groats, roving reporters, tabloid writers and broadsheet columnists, have been riding on the wave of the new freedom of information acts. As a result of the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002, and its UK counterpart, the Freedom of Information Act 2000, the public now has a statutory right to recorded information held by most public sector bodies. Although the new right only came into force on 1 January 2005, its effect is retrospective ...

A&L Goodbody LLP | January 2005

&L Goodbody recently represented the Irish Nightclub Industry Association (INIA) and the Irish Hotels Federation (IHF) against Phonographic Performance (Ireland) Limited (PPI) in a case on copyright law which is a landmark judgment not only in Ireland but elsewhere. The INIA and IHF challenged an arbitrator’s award which had set copyright fees payable by nightclubs to Phonographic Performance (Ireland) Limited – “PPI” ...

A&L Goodbody LLP | January 2005

Introduction Patented inventions are a large source of revenue in the pharmaceutical industry. Ireland's tax exemption in respect of certain patent royalties, has been one of the driving factors behind investment by pharmaceutical multinationals, principally from the US, in the Irish economy. Irish tax legislation provides an exemption from tax for income derived from "qualifying patents" when received by a person resident in Ireland and not resident in any other country ...

A&L Goodbody LLP | January 2005

When it comes to the patentability of computer-implemented inventions, Europe and the United States have differing and diverse opinions. The United States has a liberal approach to the patentability of computer software and will therefore grant patents for such inventions. Not so in Europe though, where computer programs are patentable only if they make a “technical contribution” to the state of the art ...

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